DA Antifungal2.txt

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DA Antifungal2.txt
2012-02-10 11:36:05
HUSOP DA EXAM2 Antifungal2

DA antifungal
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  1. Fungi are_______, eukaryotic microorganisms that exist as yeast,_______, combination of the two as _________.
    • Free living,
    • Molds,
    • Dimorphic fungi
  2. T/F. Fungi and humans have many metabolic pathways in common?
  3. What are the three susceptible populations of concern for an increase risk of mycoses.
    • Immunocompromised,
    • ICU Patients
    • Patients w/prostheses
  4. Diagnosis has been problematic due to slow growth. What new methods have evolved to improve diagnosis?
    • PCR,
    • Western blot,
    • ag detection
  5. mammals use _______as a structural component of their cell membrane and fungi use _________.
    • Cholesterol,
    • Ergosterol
  6. Egrosterol is synthesized in _________.
  7. Are antifunal inhibitors typically fungistatic or fungicidal?
  8. Squaline epoxidase is inhibited by _______and __________.
    • Allylamines Benzylamines,
    • Imidazoles Triazoles
  9. 14 alpha sterol demethylase is inhibited by ________ _______.
    Imidazoles Triazoles
  10. What four things compose the cell wall of fungi?
    • Chitin
    • B(1,3)D-glucan
    • B(1,6)D-glucan
    • Mannose containing protiens (mannoproteins)
  11. Which one of the four components of the cell wall of fungi make a barrier around the cell?
    Mannose containing proteins
  12. What is a linear polysaccharide composed of 2000 N-acetylglucosamine units bundled into microfilbrils forming the basic structure of the cell wall.
  13. Glycan polymer are ________ linked to the microfibril.
  14. These are five types of Mycoses?
    • Superficial
    • Cutaneous
    • Subcutaneous
    • Opportunistic
    • Primary or Systemic
  15. T/F: Many types of mycoses are opportunistic.
  16. T/F Few fungi have sufficient virulence to be a primary pathogen in normal individuals.
  17. Classic fungal infections including Tinea pedis and Tinea cruris are ________ and are caused by ____________.
    • Superficial
    • Dermatophytes
  18. Candidiasis (thrush) is whitish fungal growth located on the _____ with _______ underneath.
    • Tongue
    • Erosions
  19. _________ _____ ______ is deep seated and difficult to clear. It walls it self off from the ________ ______.
    • Aspergillus Lung Infection,
    • Immune system
  20. What are the medications listed that inhibit ergosterol synthesis.
    • Allylamines benzylamines,
    • Imidazoles triazoles
  21. Where in the cell is ergosterol synthesis inhibited?
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  22. Flucytosine inhibits what kind of synthesis and where?
    DNA, Nucleus
  23. Echinocandins inhibit the cell membrane or cell wall?
    Cell Wall
  24. The plasma membrane is inhibited by _______ __________.
    amphotericin B (Polyenes)
  25. The mitotic spindle is located in the _______ and inhbited by ______.
    • Cytoplasm,
    • Griseofulvin
  26. Amphotericin B is a polyene _____ antibioic.
  27. Amphotericin B is __________ in water, and is formulated with this detergent ___________.
    • Insoluble,
    • Deoxycholate (C-AMB, FUNGIZONE)
  28. Once amphotercin B is formulated with deoxycholate it is put in to a unilamellar vesicle called ________ and colloid dispersion occurs and reduces ___________
    • Ambizome,
    • size(Amphotec)
  29. Amphtericin binds to ________ _______ withing fungal plasma membrane.
    Ergosterol moieties
  30. Once amphotercin b is bound by the ergosterol moieties forms _________ through the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
  31. T/F: Amphotericin B is fungicidal.
  32. 30% of Amphotericin is bound to ______ and not readily removed. Causing it to be good at binding membranes causing a long _____ ______
    • Tissue,
    • Half life
  33. T/F Amphpotericin B is good for fungal infections in the CNS, vitreous humor or amniotic fluid?
  34. T/F: Amphotericin B is good for meningitis due to COCCIDIOIDES.
  35. A major Adverse reaction is __________ C-AMB treated patents for deep mycoses. (kidney damage)
  36. Hypochromic mormocytic anemia is generally seen due to decreased ___________.
    Erythropoietin production
  37. __________ inhibits fungi replication by conversion to a metabolite that inhibits Thymidylate synthetase.
  38. Mammallian cells do not posses the ________ transporter that allows for cellular uptake.
  39. Flucytosine is used for _________, neoformans and _________.
    • Crytococcus
    • Candida spp
  40. T/F: Cytosine permease in cell membrane allows for Flucytosine to be transported through the cell membrane.
  41. T/F: Flucytosine is good for initial treatments for branin fungi.
  42. Flucytosine in combination with ___________ can be used for crytococcal meningitis.
    Amphotericin B (Polyenes)
  43. Egrosterol synthase inhibitors imidazole and triazole are metabolized and inhibitor of what CYP?
  44. Itraconazole (ketoconazole) inhibits what enzyme _________.
    14 alpha sterol dehydrogenase
  45. Is Itraconazole the problem with renal insufficiency or is the excipent?
  46. The problematic itraconzale excipient is ________________.
    Hydroxypropyl-B- Cyclodextrin
  47. T/F: Itraconzole is used for aspergillosis out side the CNS.
  48. Whiat is the primary ADR for itraconzole?
    GI distress
  49. Fluconzale is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and _______.
  50. Fluconzaole penetrates most compartments with _______.
  51. Fluconzole is especially effective against Candidiasis and esy for deep Candidiasis mycosis of ______ _______ transplantion.
    Bone Marrow
  52. Fluconzole is the drug of choice for ______________.
    coccidioidal meningitis
  53. Usually an _________ is prescribed with fluconzole to relieve________.
    • Anti-emetic,
    • Nausea and vomiting
  54. Gristeofulvin inhibits fungal mitosis by binding _______ and disrupting mitotic spindle formation.
  55. Gristeofulvin binds to keratin in __________and stays in high concentrations in the skin. Not allowing for _________.
    keratinocyte precursor cells, recolonization
  56. T/F Gristeofulvin is good for subcutaneous or deep mycotic infections.
  57. Terbinafine is a synthetic _________ which inhibits ________ synthesis by inhibiting _________ epoxidase.
    • Allylamine
    • Ergosterol
    • Squalene
  58. Tebinafine is used for nail _____________(nail bed infection)
  59. T/F Topical antifungal agents are effective against onychomycosis, tinea capitis, subcutaneous infections.
  60. Topical antifungal agents effectiveness is influenced by ________.
    ability to penetrate stratum corneum.
  61. Clotrimazole is used primarly for _________ infections
  62. Naftifine is an _____________________ which is effective against tinea cruris and tinea corporis.
    allylamine inhibitor of squalene 2,3-epoxidase
  63. T/F: Nystatin has the same MOA as amphotericin B.