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  1. Quantitative
    • Numerical information which is analyzed statistically
    • If there are numbers in the research paper, the research is quantitative
    • Degree to which findings of quantitative research can be applied to other individuals is referred to as generalizability.
  2. Qualitative
    • Approach to structuring knowledge that emphasize verbal descriptions and the meaning of the experience for the individual
    • More holistic in nature
  3. National Institute of Nursing Research
    • Defines priorities of nursing research
    • Promotes research by supporting grants and conducting research
  4. Priorities: NINR Strategic Plan released in 2006 – there are four current areas of research emphasis at NINR
    • Promoting Health and Preventing Disease
    • Improving Quality of Life
    • Eliminating Health Disparities
    • Setting Directions for End-of-Life Research
  5. National Institute of Nursing Research Mission
    • Promote and improve the health of communities, families, populations, and individuals.
    • Enhance science and healthcare by integrating the biological and behavioral sciences, applying new technologies, promoting health equity, and developing scientists of the future.
  6. Purpose of IRB (international review boards)
    • Review groups responsible for ensuring that researchers do not engage in unethical research or poorly designed studiesall research goes in front of the boards
    • Review research proposals
    • Must ensure human rights are not being violated
  7. International Review Board members
    lawyers, lay persons, clergy, nurses, etc…
  8. Basic Research
    Pure research. Used to obtain empirical data which can be used to develop, refine, or test a theory.
  9. Applied Research
    Used to gain knowledge that can be used in a practical setting.
  10. Experiemental Research
    • Researcher manipulates or controls a variable while observing the effect on other variables.
    • Control group and experimental group
  11. Non-experimental Research
    • Descriptive type of research
    • No manipulation/experimentation
  12. Retrospective Research
    • Examines data collected in the past
    • Chart review
  13. Prospective Research
    • Examines data collected in the present
    • Taking BP measurements
    • No data collection from past or future
  14. Cross-Sectional Research
    Collects data at one point in time; no follow-up
  15. Longitudinal Research
    • Collects data at different intervals over time
    • May lose subjects over time
  16. Nuremberg Code
    • Developed in 1947 as a result of the Nuremberg trials.
    • Nazi medical experiments in 1930s and 40s – subjects could not refuse participation – used POWs and racial “enemies”
  17. Sections of the Nuremberg Code:
    • Voluntary consent of human subjects
    • Experiment expected to yield fruitful results
    • Experiment should avoid necessary physical and mental suffering
    • Human subject should be able to bring experiment to an end
    • The degree of risk should not exceed the importance of solving the problem
    • The experiment should only be conducted by scientifically qualified persons
  18. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study
    • Begun by U.S. Public Health Service in 1932
    • Studied African Americans with Syphilis compared to a control group without Syphilis
    • Men were not informed they were part of research study
    • Treated men with known non-effective drug after discovery of Penicillin as effective treatment
    • Despite death rate for the men with Syphilis being twice as high as those in the control group, study was continued until 1972
  19. Groups requiring special protection in research
    • Children
    • Mentally Handicapped
    • Prisoners
    • All vunerable inndividuals
  20. Peer review
    • reviewers chosen by the editor for their expertise as clinicians, researchers, and/or administrators
    • More scientifically valid
  21. How to tell if a journal is refereed:
    • Limit search to refereed journals when using search engine such as EBSCO
    • Check the editorial statement or instructions to authors (usually in the first few pages of the journal or at the end) for references to the peer-review process
    • Physical cues: If we are not familiar with a publication or its reputation we can turn to other physical cues such as looking at the masthead or publication information which appears usually just inside the front or back cover. Sometimes it will be clearly stated that a publication is peer reviewed or refereed
  22. Big differences between grand, middle-range, borrowed and practice theories
    • Grand - complex and broad scoped
    • Middle - relatively focused
    • Practice or prescriptive - more specific than middle-range
    • Borrowed - from other disciplines
  23. Simple Random Sampling
    • Every subject has an equal and independent chance of being chosen
    • Random selection vs random assignment
    • Use random selection from population to get sample then randomly assign into groups (control and experimental) from sample
  24. Stratified Random Sampling
    • Type of sampling in which population divided into subpopulation, or strata, on the basis of one or more variables, and a simple random sample is drawn from each strata
    • Used when researcher knows some of the variables in the population which are critical to achieve representativeness
    • Example: If using ethnicity as strata: Researcher knows target population contains 60% Caucasians, 20% African American, 15% Hispanic, 5% other. Will select random sample from each stratum; either equal numbers from each strata, or sample that is equivalent to the target population proportions for each strata.
  25. Cluster Sampling
    • Groups are randomly selected instead of individuals
    • Researcher first constructs sampling frame with list of all the groups (cities, states, institution, organizations) with which elements of the identified population can be linked
    • Randomized sample of these groups (cities, states etc) are then used in the study
    • Selection of members of these groups may then be made by random or stratified random sampling (multistage sampling) if done in several stages
    • This is used when researchers want to obtain geographically dispersed groups or researcher is unable to develop a sampling frame
  26. Systematic Sampling
    • System when individuals of population are selected from a list by taking every kth individual
    • All members of the population do not have an independent chance of being selected for the sample
    • Considered type of probability sampling if the population list is randomly ordered
    • Example: Between 1984 and 1986, 4000 mothers of toddlers who were born full-term and who were delivered vaginally or by cesarean section (sampling frame) were identified. To select 146 mothers from the list of 4,000, every 27th subject was selected
  27. Examples of Probability Sampling
    • Simple Random
    • Stratified Random
    • Cluster
    • Systematic
  28. Examples of Nonprobablility Sampling
    • Convenience Sampling
    • Snowball Sampling
    • Network Sampling
    • Quota Sampling
    • Purposive Sampling
  29. Convenience Sampling
    • Does not use random selection
    • Sample subjects are not selected from the larger group of subjects
    • Researcher collects data from whomever is available and meets the study criteria
    • Just happened to be in the right place at the right time
    • Example: A classroom of students; Patients who attend a clinic on a specific day; A sample composed of every 5th patient who enters the emergency room on a given day; Subjects who attend a support group
  30. Snowball Sampling
    • Also called Network Sampling
    • Relies on subjects identifying other subjects with similar characteristics
    • Example: Researcher has found subjects with necessary criteria, he or she asks their assistance in finding other subjects with similar characteristics; Women who have had a pregnancy loss recruit other women that they know who have also had a pregnancy loss for the study
  31. Quota Sampling
    • The strata of the population are identified based on specific characteristics
    • The quota for each stratum is determined, and subjects are solicited via convenience sampling
    • Done to ensure that subject types are included which are likely to be underrepresented in a purely convenience sample
    • Example: Quota sampling was used to achieve appropriate sample representation by gender, at a ratio of 4 males to 1 female. Gender subgroups were then stratified by prebaseline CD4 cell counts….
  32. Purposive Sampling
    • Researcher “hand-picks” certain cases to be in the study
    • Usually with qualitative studies
    • Chosen subjects are those though to best represent the phenomenon being studied and to be typical of the population
    • Example: Subjects were clients of an output methadone treatment program for opiate addicts….subjects had either used illegal injection drugs themselves, or were the sexual partners of men who did. Purposive sampling was used to capture the richness of a wide range of perspectives. Subjects were selected on the basis of race or ethnicity, personal history of drug abuse and treatment, and personal experience with AIDS….
  33. What type of sampling method is best if you want to generalize to a larger population
    Random Sampling
  34. Rigor
    striving for excellence that involves discipline, adherence to detail, and strict accuracy
  35. Triangulation
    using various combinations of research designs or instruments in the same study, or use of both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data about a phenomenon.looking at the issue from different angles
  36. Generalizability
    ›Degree to which findings of quantitative research can be applied to other individuals
  37. What are the steps in the research process?
    • 1. Selecting and defining the problemw
    • ›2. Selecting a research design (quantitative or qualitative)
    • ›3. Collecting data
    • ›4. Analyzing data
    • ›5. Using the research findings
  38. Declaration of Helsinki introduced what concept?
    Informed Concent
  39. ›Beneficence
    right to freedom from harm and discomfort, right to protection from exploitation, respect for human dignity
  40. Justice
    right to fair treatment and right to privacy
  41. Guidelines to protect the rights of human subjects
    • ›Freedom from risk of injury or harm›
    • Right to privacy and dignity›
    • Righty to anonymity and confidentiality
    • ›Guidelines apply to all individuals involved in research
    • ›Voluntary informed consent must be obtained
    • ›Subjects must be aware of risk-benefit ratio
    • ›Subjects vulnerability must be considered
  42. Types of quanitative research
    • ——Descriptive research
    • ——Correlational research
    • Quasi-experimental research
    • Experiemental research
  43. Descriptive research
    Purpose to identify and describe concepts or variables, identify possible relationships between variables, delineate differences between groups
  44. ——Correlational research
    Purpose is to examine the type and strength of relationships between variables
  45. —Quasi-experimental research
    Purpose to determine the effect of a treatment or independent variable on designated dependent variable
  46. —Experimental research
    Highly controlled, purpose to determine effect of independent variable(s) on dependent variable(s)
  47. What is the difference between quasi-experiemental and experimental research?
    lack a control group that is distinct from the experimental group, or lack random assignment of subjects to either group
  48. Types of qualitative research
    • —Phenomenological
    • ——Grounded theory
    • ——Ethnographic
  49. Phenomenological
    conducted to understand a human experience from an individual researcher’s perspective
  50. Grounded theory
    The theory developed from the research has it’s roots in the data which was collected
  51. Ethnographic
    Collecting information about cultures
  52. Problem Statement
    • —A concise statement that indicates the gap in the knowledge needed for practice and provides a basis for the study
    • Justifies the study, discusses background info already known about the topic and the relevance of the problem to practice, theory or both
  53. Purpose Statement
    • a single statement that identifies why the problem is being studied
    • —Purpose statement can be written in one of three ways:—— (a declarative statement, —a question—, or a hypothesis)
  54. Purpose statement should include that three things?
    • Information about what researcher is going to do
    • Information about the setting for the study
    • Information about the subjects
  55. Hypothesis
    A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected relationship(s) between two or more variables in a specified population——Can never be proved or disproved——Can be supported or not supported by data
  56. Purpose of a hypothesis
    • —To guide scientific inquiry—
    • To provide direction for the research design—
    • To provide direction for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data
  57. What are the different types of variables?
    • Independent
    • Dependent
    • Extraneous
    • Confounding
  58. —Independent variable
    Manipulated by researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable
  59. Dependent variable
    —Outcome or response that the researcher wants to predict or explain
  60. —Extraneous variables
    —Other variables other than the independent and dependent variable
  61. Confounding variables
    —Extraneous variables which are not discovered until the study is in process, or recognized before the study is started but cannot be controlled
  62. Associative Hypothesis
    proposes relationships among variables that occur or exist in the real world
  63. Causal Hypothesis
    proposes a cause and effect relationship between variables, referred to as independent and dependent variables
  64. Simple Hypothesis
    states the relationship (associative or causal) between two variables
  65. Complex Hypothesis
    states the relationship (associative or causal) among two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables
  66. Non-directional Hypothesis
    states a relationship exists but does not predict the nature of the relationship
  67. Directional Hypothesis
    states the nature (positive or negative) of the interaction between two or more variables
  68. Null Hypothesis
    —States that no relationship exists between variables
  69. Research Hypothesis
    —States that a relationship exists between two or more variables
  70. Metaparadigm
    —A metaparadigm refers to primary phenomena of interest to a particular discipline.
  71. What are the four metaparadigm concepts in nursing?
    • —1. Person
    • —2. Environment
    • —3. Health
    • —4. Nursing
  72. Population or target population
    • Entire set of subjects, objects, events or elements being studied
    • Entire set of persons who meet the sample criteria
  73. Sample
    • Subset of the population being studied
    • Expected to represent the population
  74. Accessible Population
    The part of the target population that is readily available to the researcher
  75. Adequate size sampling
    • Depends on study:
    • —For qualitative study, adequate sample size is one large enough to explore meanings and phenomena
    • —For quantitative studies, sample size linked to data collection and type of analysis
  76. External Validity
    The extent to which study results can be generalized from the study sample to other subjects, populations, measuring instruments, and settings
  77. —Threats to External Validity
    • Interaction of selection and treatment (When samples are confined to certain types of subjects)
    • —Interaction of setting and treatment (When samples are in a specific setting, hard to generalize to other settings)
    • —Interaction of history and treatment (What is found in the past may not be true in the present)
  78. Construct validity
    —How well does an instrument measure an intended hypothetical concept or construct
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Exam One
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