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2012-02-10 19:40:53

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  1. The process of one tectonic plate being pulled underneath another is called?
    Tectonic subduction
  2. Douglas fir regeneration responds well to:
    full sun conditions
  3. Who was the man behind the term "preservation" in environmental science?
    John Muir
  4. The first country to adopt an official population policy was?
  5. An organism's ecological niche is:
    the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist.
  6. All individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile young are defined as a(n):
  7. Scientifically, _______ is expressed as the number of species in an area. biological diversity
    biological diversity
  8. The term ombrotrophic refers to a water system that is fed mainly by:
    rainwater and air.
  9. What is the main alcohol found in biofuel?
  10. The _________ approach estimates how many people can be put onto our planet without taking into account Earth’s ability to supply their needs, such as the need for food.
    packing problem
  11. The four processes that lead to biological evolution are:
    Mutation, Natural Selection, Migration, and Genetic Drift
  12. Positive feedback occurs when:
    an increase in output leads to a further increase in the output.
  13. In developed countries, what percentage of people live
    in urban areas?
  14. Species that benefit each other, but are not essential to each other are called _________.
    facultative symbionts
  15. In ________ a single species that is isolated on different islands can be separated into multiple distinct species.
    adaptive radiation
  16. The first plants to appear after a disturbance are called _________.
    pioneer species
  17. Late-successional species grow well in _______ and
    have seeds that can survive for a _______ period of time.
    shade, long
  18. A species such as the sea otter that has a large effect on its community or ecosystem is called a ________.
    keystone speices
  19. The largest phosphorous stores on Earth are in the_________.
    Earth’s outer crust
  20. Which of the following is an example of a system sink and flux?
    • Sink: forests of the world
    • Flux: amount of carbon transferred from atmosphere to forest
  21. Maximum potential lifetime (longevity) is determined by _______.
  22. What is a watershed?
    An area of land where rainfall flows out through the same stream.
  23. Approximately how old is the planet Earth?
    5 billion years
  24. The concept of "carrying capacity" refers to:
    Maximum number of individuals of a single species that can be sustained by an environment without reducing the environment's ability to sustain the same number of individuals in the future.
  25. Photosynthesis generally ___________.
    yields glucose and oxygen gas
  26. When two populations of the same species become geographically isolated from each other for a long time, the two populations may change so much genetically that they can no longer reproduce together, even when they are brought back into contact. This is known as ____.
    divergent evolution
  27. The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the __________.
  28. Which of the following is BEST considered the underlying cause of environmental issues?:
    Human population growth
  29. What allows alders to grow along the edges of glaciers?
    nitrogen fixation
  30. After which event would secondary succession occur?
    forest fire
  31. _______ cutting method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics and high seed production to promote the regeneration of the forest.
  32. Which of the following is true of autotrophs?:
    They can live without heterotrophs.
  33. Carbon forms two of the most important greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide and ______.
  34. Which of the following is an adaptation of late-successional
    shade tolerance
  35. Which of these sets of elements are considered the fundamental building blocks of life?:
  36. About ______ of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas.
  37. To restore the fox population in the Channel Islands, ________ are to be removed and ________ are to be reintroduced.
    golden eagles, bald eagles
  38. ______ are communities of organisms, including the community’s local nonliving environment, in which matter (i.e. chemical elements) cycles and energy flows.
  39. The founder of the Yale School of Forestry and the first head of the U.S. Forest Service was __________
    Gifford Pinchot
  40. Chronic patchiness is found in which ecosystem
  41. The first major increase in human population occurred during
    the ________?
    rise of agriculture
  42. According to Cranfield University's study of the effects of
    vegetarianism on the environment, vegetarianism may:
    lead to more deforestation.
  43. Estimates of how many people the planet can support range from 2.5 billion to 40 billion. Which of the following factors does not play an important role in this estimate?
    Dropping birth rate in developing countries.
  44. In forestry, which of the following is one of the alternatives
    to clear-cutting that leaves some trees in the stand?
    shelterwood cutting
  45. With obligate symbionts:
    each provides what the other needs and neither could survive without the other.
  46. The profession of growing trees is known as:
  47. Sea otters feed on sea urchins. Sea urchins then feed on kelp. If there are fewer sea otters, there will be ________ kelp.
  48. In the study of adaptive radiation of honeycreepers in Hawaii,
    the varying beak size and shape:
    arose due to differing food type and availability.
  49. Acorn abundance is tied to Lyme disease abundance through
    mice, ticks, deer and humans. This is an example of:
    a forest food web.
  50. What is a message to be learned from whooping cranes?
    Not all rare species are in danger of extinction.
  51. Which of the following is true of autotrophs?:
    They can live without heterotrophs.
  52. The establishment of a community following a disturbance that
    doesn't remove the soil is:
    secondary succession.
  53. A sustainable society _______.
    ensures that Earth's resources will remain adequate to support future generations.
  54. In reference to ecological succession, the term facilitation
    refers to:
    one species making the environment more suitable for another species.
  55. How many species of birds native to the United States have
    been infected with the West Nile virus?
  56. _________ is one of the "Big Six" elements necessary
    as the building blocks of life.
  57. The term ombrotrophic refers to a water system that is fed
    mainly by
    rainwater and air.
  58. What makes an ecological island different from other areas
    It is biologically isolated, so species living there cannot mix with other populations of the same species.
  59. What allows alders to grow along the edges of glaciers?
    nitrogen fixation
  60. What does "biota" refer to?
    All living things within a given area.
  61. A lava flow is an example of what kind of succession?
  62. Two species that compete for the same life resources and have
    exactly the same requirements ________.
    cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat
  63. Generally, interference refers to ______ successional species
    preventing the establishment of _______ successional species.
    early, late
  64. How fast do tectonic plates move?
    Between 0 and 1 foot a year.
  65. Doubling time is defined as:
    the time it takes for what is growing to double in size or number.
  66. The current consumption of the Earth's renewable natural resources is estimated to be about _________ the Earth's biological productivity replaces each year.
    20 percent greater than
  67. The "balance of nature" means that _______.
    natural systems that are not disturbed by people tend to persist in a steady state
  68. Positive feedback occurs when ________.
    an increase in output leads to a further increase in the output
  69. We use both ____ and ____ to solve environmental problems.
    science, values
  70. When we harvest a product from an ecosystem, we need to be concerned about the _______ of the harvest.
  71. Which of these positive environmental effects are mainly caused by the fact that human population is constantly decreasing?
    There is no positive effect because human population is currently increasing
  72. Which of the following is not a typical population's age structure?
    Inflected pyramid
  73. What is the most accurate estimate of how many people the planet can support with basic requirements of life?
    From 2.5 to 40 billion
  74. The cause of the highest number of deaths in the United States in 1998 was ______.
    heart disease
  75. Which of these cycles is not part of the geologic cycle?
  76. Approximately how long has the Earth's geologic cycle been functioning?
    4.6 billion years
  77. Seattle started discharging treated wastewater into Puget Sound instead of Lake Washington in 1968 because of _____ contamination problems.
  78. What essential element is acquired by plants primarily from the air?
  79. The erosion of the Grand Canyon is an example of the effects of _____.
    Techtonic uplift
  80. A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time is called a ____.
  81. The place where a species lives is termed its ______.
  82. Symbiosis in nature is _________.
  83. We call the group of organisms and their interactions with the living and nonliving environment a(n) ________.
  84. A change in the genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called ____.
    genetic drift
  85. Among the causes of evolution is(are) ______.
    competition for resources
  86. The failure of antimalarial efforts starting in 1957 over time shows how organisms can develop ________
  87. _______ is best defined as the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species, subspecies, or group of species.
    genetic diversity
  88. Biologists estimate that ________ species exist on Earth today.
    3-10 million
  89. _________ is the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist.
    primary succession
  90. What was the most successful restoration method for lead mines in England?
    Slow-growing native grasses
  91. Dune grass is an example of a(n) ________ in succession.
  92. The Fort Valley Experimental Forest shows that it can be a problem ecologically to ________ fire.
  93. Left undisturbed for a long time, an ecosystem _______ its stored elements.
    slowly loses
  94. Which species is best suited to clearcutting in the Pacific Northwest?
  95. Aldo Leopold developed the term _______
    The Land Ethic
  96. According to the discussion list, it is estimated that the Great
    Pacific Garbage Patch contains about ________ million tons of garbage and is growing daily.
  97. A scientist who first sounded the alarm about the growth of the human population and the ability of the earth to handle a large
    population of humans was
    Thomas Malthus
  98. Longevity can be defined as:
    genetically determined maximum possible age to which an individual of a particular species can live
  99. Which of the following parameters is/are necessary to describe exponential population growth?
    population size
  100. Which of the following chemicals is most important in
    the transfer and use of energy within cells?
  101. Which of the following elements cycles quickly and is readily regenerated for biological activity?
  102. Igneous rock is produced from all of the following except:
    weathered materials
  103. Nitrogen is needed to manufacture which two important
    biological compounds ?
    proteins and DNA
  104. Which of the following is NOT a way in which carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere?
  105. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that:
    energy cannot be created or destroyed
  106. The function or important role of a species in an ecosystem is termed its
    ecological niche
  107. Predators:
    aid in limiting the population sizes of their prey
  108. Autotrophs are:
    primary producers
  109. How many species have been recovered in the US since the inception of the Endangered Species Act of 1973?
  110. Which of the following elements is not essential for plant growth and function?
  111. Facilitation happens when
    first plant species prepare the way for other species' growth
  112. When species do not interact and succession does not take place, the result is
    chronic patchiness
  113. Early succession plants are:
    low growing plants that are specifically adapted to unstable conditions of the physical environment
  114. Strip cutting in a forest is:
    the practice of cutting narrow rows of trees, leaving wooded corridors
  115. Managing wildlife to keep populations at a constant level is not always successful because:
    populations are naturally variable
  116. Nearly two-thirds of all the wood produced in the world is used for
  117. A natural, important ecological function of forests is:
    maintaining watersheds
  118. The concept of _____________ leads to _________ and _________
    sustainable society, sustainable economy, sustainable development
  119. ______-successional species grow well in shade and have seeds that can survive for a rather _____ period of time
    late, long
  120. What does the principle of "environmental unity" say?
    Everything affects everything else
  121. Disturbed ecosystems can recover naturally through __________.
    ecological succession
  122. Ruminants, such as elk, have four-chambered stomachs teeming with billions of microbes. The bacteria digest woody tissue that the elk cannot fully digest on their own. The bacteria also convert nitrogen into organic compounds and give off fatty acids that benefit the elk. In return, the elk provide an environment that allows the bacteria to survive. In this case, both bacteria and elk are ____.
    obligate symbionts
  123. Thomas Malthus advocated that human population will
    be reduced by our own vices, such as wars, epidemics, and famines
  124. The way a population or species has varied in number, from most to fewest, over a past time period is measured by a(n) ____ and is called the _____.
    time series, historical range of variation
  125. Following a severe storm on the sand dunes of Oregon, the process of grasses becoming established followed by shrubs and eventually a forest growing on the dune is an example of
    what kind of natural process?
    secondary succession
  126. As an alternative to clear-cutting, which forestry method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics in order to promote regeneration of the forest?
    Seed-tree cutting
  127. A collision of _______________ plates can lead to mountain building as well as subduction of the more dense plate
  128. How long did it take for the radiation of Chernobyl to travel around the world to the Oak Ridge backyard grass clippings?
    3 days
  129. What is the correct chronological order of a demographic transition in western civilization?
    • Stage 1: birth rate declines
    • stage 2: high growth rate
    • stage 3: birth rate drops toward the death date rate, so growth declines
  130. ______________ in the earth's mantle lead to the movement of the plates
    convection currents
  131. "The Land Ethic" concept describes the philosophy that:
    All of Earth's resources have the right to exist in a natural state, and that human's role should be that of citizen and protector instead of a conqueror of nature.
  132. Birth rates have ______ faster in countries that have a ______ standard of living than in countries with a ______ standard of living
    declined, high, low
  133. Biodiversity generally _________________ with increased latitude, and _______________ often substitutes for increased latitude
    declines, altitude
  134. What does the Gaia hypothesis propose?
    The environment at a global level has been changed by life throughout history of life on Earth, and that these changes have tended to improve the chances that life on Earth will continue
  135. The plastics of the great ocean garbage dump are being broken down by a process known as photodegradation, in which
    infrared, visible and ultraviolet light energy of sunlight breaks down molecules releasing toxins
  136. Societies consisting of populations with exponential growth may exceed the area's __________ and thus be unsustainable.
    carrying capacity
  137. The Gaia Hypothesis states that life _______ the environment for the ___________ of life.
    manipulates, maintenance
  138. What can cause a population to continue to increase after a crash in resources and subsequent reduced fertilization rate?
    existing pregnancies
  139. Exponential growth:
    occurs at a constant rate per time period.
  140. The big six macronutrients include:
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
  141. What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere?
    transform fault boundary
  142. What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
    convergent boundary
  143. The three types of rock include all EXCEPT:
  144. Through the processes of heat, pressure or chemicals, sedimentary rock can become ________rock
  145. In the annual calcium cycle, the highest flux rates are in:
    biological uptake
  146. The chemical equation for photosynthesis is:
    6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6O2
  147. Free nitrogen makes up about what _____% of Earth's atmosphere
  148. Chronic diseases are present in a _______ but _______ percentage of the population and include diseases such as heart disease, cancer and strokes.
    small, constant
  149. In acute or epidemic diseases, a disease appears _________ in the population and affects a _______ percentage of the population and then _________ or almost disappears, only to ________ later.
    rapidly, large, declines, reappear
  150. An organism's realized temperature niche
    the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is competition from other organisms
  151. Biological evolution _______
    can result in new species
  152. Which does NOT contribute to the shrinking of wetlands?
    closing of canals and navigation channels
  153. Which does NOT result in an increase in biodiversity?
    increase in agriculture
  154. Ombrotrophic systems, such as bogs, are characterized by:
    all of their nutrients coming from the air or rain
  155. When dune grass prepares a way for other species to grow, it is an example of ____
  156. Gifford Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt coined the term conservation, meaning
    preservation and wise use of all natural resources
  157. Which did NOT contribute to spotted owls population drop in the U.S.?
  158. Igneous rock forms from
    molten material such as lava, broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
  159. The relative abundance of a species is known as the _____
    species evenness
  160. Which of the following factors is not a short-term factor that limits population growth?
    climate change
  161. What percentage of the wood currently used in the United States is produced in the United States?
  162. Sedimentary rock forms from
    accumulation of weathered material in depositional basins.
  163. Indirect deforestation is defined as:
    The death of trees due to pollution or disease
  164. Which is not a characteristic of an ecosystem?
    They all are similar in size
  165. The geologic cycle consists of the
    tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles.
  166. There has/have been ____ mass extinctions on Earth
  167. A smoke stack releasing toxic metals is an example of a _________ source pollution.