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1. Commonly known as 'x-ray.'
2/ Uses x-radiation to visualize a bone fracture or other abnormalities.
Visual examination of the internal structure of a joint.
Bone marrow biopsy
A diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red OR white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test.
Note: Typically done by bone marrow aspiration.
Bone marrow aspiration
1. Use of a syringe to withdraw liquid bone marrow.
2. This procedure is used to obtain tissue for diagnostic purposes OR to collect bone bone marrow for medical procedures such as stem cell transplantation.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
1.Uses magnetic field to get detailed images of soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints.
2. Not the most effective method of imaging hard tissues such as bone.
Bone density testing
1. Used to determine losses or changes in bone density
- 2. Used to diagnose conditions such as:
- .....a. Osteoporosis
- .....b. Osteomalacia
- .....c. Osteopenia
- .....d. Paget's disease
- 3. Two types most commonly used:
- .....a. Ultrasonic bone density testing
- .....b. Dual x-ray absorptiomety
Ultrasonic bone density testing
1. Screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass.
2. NOT the most definitive test, but does indicate risk.
3. Sound waves used to take measurements of the calcenaeous (heel) bone.
Dual x-ray absorptiometry
1. More definitive and accurate test of bone mass.
2. Low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density.
Bone marrow transplant
1. Abbreviation is BMT.
2. Used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas that affect bone marrow.
3. First, both tumor and patient's bone marrow are destroyed with high-intensity radiation and chemotherapy.
4. Then, healthy bone marrow stem cells are transfused into the recipient's blood to migrate to spongy bone where they multiply to form cancer-free red bone marrow.
Allogenic bone marrow graft
1. Uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor.
2. Unless there is a perfect match, there is danger of rejection.
Note: Allogenic means originating within another.
Autologous bone marrow transplant
1. Patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleaned, treated, then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed.
Note: Autologous means originating within an individual.
Mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function.
Substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a lg that has been amputated.
1. Surgical fusion or fixation of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as ankle, elbow, or shoulder.
2. Procedure is performed to treat severe arthritis or damaged joint.
3. Also known as surgical ankylosis.
Surgical loosening or release of an ankylosed joint.
Note: Compare with arthrodesis.
Minimally invasive procedure for treatment of the interior of a joint.
Example: Torn cartilage can be removed with the use of an arthroscope and instruments inserted through small incisions around the knee.
Surgical removal of a bursa.
Example: Damaged bursa in shoulder joint often removed during rotator cuff surgery.
Surgical repair of a damaged cartilage.
Surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint.
2. One use of this procedure, which can be performed endoscopically, is to repair joint damage caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
1. Word parts mean 'surgical repair of a joint,' BUT term has come to mean
the surgical placement of an artificial joint.
- 2. These procedures are named for the involved joint and the amount of the joint that is replaced:
- .....a. Total knee replacement
- .....b. Partial knee replacement
- .....c. Total hip replacement
- .....d. Bone-conserving hip resurfacing
- .....e. Revision surgery
Total knee replacement
1. Abbreviation: TKR
2. All of the parts of the knee joint were replaced.
3. Also known as total knee arthroplasty.
Common name for joint replacement prosthesis.
Partial knee replacement
1. Abbreviation: PKR
2. Procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced.
Total hip replacement
1. Abbreviation: THR
2. Performed to restore a damaged hip to full function
- 3. During surgery, a plastic lining is fitted into the acetabulum to restore a smooth surface.
- .....The head of the femur is removed and replaced with a metal ball attaached to a metal shft that is fitted into the femur.
- .....These smooth surfaces restore the function of the hip joint.
4. Also known as a total hip arthroplasty
Bone-conserving hip resurfacing
Alternative to removing the head of the femur.
Function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum.
Replacement of a worn or failed joint implant.
1. Performed to treat a herniated intervetebral disk.
2. A thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser.
Note: Percutaneous means performed through the skin.
1. Performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures.
2. In this minimally invasive procedure, bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column.
1. Surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra.
2. To treat spinal stenosis by creating more room for the spinal cord to decompress as it passes through the area.
Technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae.
Note: Fusion means 'to join together.'
1. Surgical removal of a portion of the skull.
2, This procedure is performed to treat craniostenosis OR to relieve increased intracranial pressure due to swelling of the brain.
1. Surgical incision or opening into the skull.
2. This procedure is performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, relieve intracranial pressure, or to obtain access for other surgical procedures.
Surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity.
1. Surgical repair of the skull.
Surgical removal of bone.
Surgical repair of a bone or bones.
Surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones.
Surgical incision or sectioning of a bone.
A surgical incision THROUGH the periosteum TO the bone.
1. Attempted realignmnet of the bone involved in fracture OR joint dislocation.
2. The affected bone is returned to its normal anatomic alignment by manually applied forces and then is usually immobilized to maintain the realigned postion during healing.
3. Also known as manipulation.
1. Act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast.
2. Also known as stabilization.
Pulling force exerted on a limb in a DISTAL direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment.
1. Fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissue and bone so that an EXTERNAL appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing.
2. When healing is complete, the appliance IS removed.
1. Fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place.
2. This form of fixation is NOT USUALLY removed after the fracture has healed.