Chapter 3
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Affiriming the consequent
 An invalid argument form:
 If p,then q.
 Q
 Therefore, p.

Antecedent
Thefirst part of a conditional statement (If p, then q.), the component that begins with the word if.

Cogent argument
A strong inductive argument with all true premises.

Conditional statement
An “ifthen” statement; it consist of the antecedent(the part introduced by the word if) and the consequent(the part introduced by the word then).

Consequent
The part of a conditional statement (if p, then q.) introduced by the word then.

Deductive argument
Intended to provide logically conclusive support for its conclusions.

Denying the antecedent
 An individual argument form:
 If p, then q.
 Not p.
 Therefore, q.

Dependent premise
A premises that’s depends on at least one other premises to provide joint support to a conclusion. If a dependent premise is removed, the support that its linked dependent premise supply to the conclusion is undermined or completely canceled out.

Disjunctive syllogism
A valid argument form:
 Either p or q.
 Not p.
 Therefore,q.

Hypothetical syllogism
 A valid argument made up of three
 hypothetical or conditional statements:
 If p, then q.
 If q, then r.
 Therefore,if p, then r.

Independent premise
A premise that does not depend on other premises to provide support to a conclusion. If an independent premise is removed, the support that other premises supply to the conclusion is not affected.

Inductive argument
An argument in which the premises are intended to provide probable, not conclusive, support for its conclusions.[form]

Modus Ponens (affirming the antecedent)
 valid argument form.
 If p, then q.
 P.
 Therefore, q