ESRM 2

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ESRM 2
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2012-02-11 03:13:22
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  1. Which of the following fuels is considered a “transition fuel”?
    Natural gas
  2. How can volcanic eruptions cool the climate?
    Dust and associated clouds reflect sunlight back into space.
  3. Organic chemicals are _________ -based compounds.
    carbon
  4. What was the cause of the "dust bowls" in the 1930s?
    soil degradation
  5. Biological control is the use of _______ and _______ to control agricultural pests.
    predators, parasites
  6. ______ is a product of uranium decay as well as an indoor air pollutant.
    radon
  7. Water demand during the past half-century has ______ as the human population has more than _______.
    tripled, doubled
  8. Earth's orbit is__________.
    eliptical
  9. Methane can be produced by certain kinds of _______ that live where there is no ________.
    bacteria, oxygen
  10. The United States gets most of its electric power from which source?
    coal
  11. The major human activities causing a decline in fish populations are:
    overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction.
  12. Upwellings cause nutrients to be ________.
    released from ocean sediments into the water column
  13. Ice floats because ___________.
    it becomes less dense when it freezes
  14. A(n) _________ is an underground layer of rocks, sand or gravel that contains usable groundwater and releases it in significant amounts.
    aquifer
  15. Intertidal areas _______.
    flood and drain twice a day
  16. Milankovitch suggested that climatic cycles of about 40,000 and 20,000 years could result from changes in Earth’s _________.
    tilt and wobble
  17. What is thermal pollution?
    Heat released into water or the air, producing undesirable effects.
  18. Isotopes are atoms of an element that are chemically the same, but have different atomic weights because they have different numbers of ______.
    neutrons
  19. A person flying over the Chernobyl site two days after the explosion most probably experienced a(n) ________ to radioactive substances.
    acute exposure
  20. As a toxic substance moves through the food chain, it becomes _________ in concentration; the __________organism in the food chain will likely receive more harm than a ________ organism.
    biomagnified, top level, bottom level
  21. In most parts of the world, what is the relationship between higher living standards and meat?
    Higher living standards mean a greater demand for meat.
  22. Higher living standards mean a greater demand for meat.
    salinization
  23. Acid runoff is most associated with which of the following mining activities?
    strip mining
  24. The three most toxic metals to humans are:
    mercury, thallium, and lead
  25. Aquaculture is ____________.
    the cultivation of things that live in water
  26. A carcinogen is:
    a toxin that increases the risk of cancer.
  27. In the U.S., the single sector which consumes the greatest portion of the water supply is ________.
    agriculture
  28. What is the estimated range of Earth's carrying capacity of human beings?
    0.5 - 800 billion
  29. Which of the following are all renewable sources of energy?:
    solar, wind, wood
  30. What is the leading cause of desertification?
    Poor farming practices
  31. The U.S. Water Resources Council estimates that water use in the United States by the year 2020 may exceed surface water resources by ________ percent.
    13%
  32. Synergism is the interaction of:
    different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that's greater than the additional effect of each substance individually.
  33. Water has a ________ capacity to absorb and store heat.
    high
  34. The effects of flooding are more destructive today than in the past because ______
    more buildings are constructed on flood plains.
  35. ___ happens when runoff carries fertilizers to water bodies and causes the growth of aquatic algae.
    Eutrophication
  36. Ocean water may be treated to remove salt in the process of:
    desalination
  37. The Southern Oscillation is known informally as:
    el Nino
  38. Organic farming is producing food without _____
    artificial pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones
  39. The majority of the pesticides found in U.S. waters are_____
    herbicides
  40. Intertidal areas _____
    flood and drain twice a day
  41. What is a terminator gene?
    A gene that makes seeds sterile.
  42. The sea level is now more than 120 meters higher than at the peak of the last ice age, and satellite measurements indicate that it is rising about ________ a year.
    1/8 inch
  43. Fish are the main source of animal protein for about ______ people worldwide.
    1billion
  44. Albedo is _____
    the percentage of light received by a surface that is reflected and scattered
  45. Mobile sources of pollution originate from _____
    transportation
  46. Why does the population generally disapprove of nuclear power sources?
    fear of radioactivity
  47. 97% of all water on earth is in the oceans. Which of the following is the correct order of the Earth's water storage compartments?:
    Oceans, ice caps, groundwater, lakes, atmosphere, rivers.
  48. In 1989, an oil tanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the Prince William Sound. What was the name of the ship?
    Exxon Valdez
  49. Overdraft occurs when we take ______
    take more ground water than can be replaced naturally
  50. According to the textbook, when are we expected to reach peak oil production?
    2020-2050
  51. Geothermal energy is defined as _______
    natural heat from the interior of the Earth.
  52. The big three plants that most people in the world eat are:
    rice, wheat, and corn.
  53. What is the main alcohol found in biofuel?
    ethanol
  54. Which includes the other three?:
    Risk analysis
  55. The oceans are warmed by the sun in the tropics. These warmed waters expand and flow north (in the Northern Hemisphere) along the surface, bringing their heat to northern latitudes. As they reach the North, these warm waters give up their heat and, as they cool, condense, become heavier, and sink, returning in the depths to the tropics. This global circulation is called the __________.
    ocean conveyor
  56. The United States, with 5% of the world’s population, uses about _____ of the total energy?
    20%
  57. According to a post on the discussion list quoting John Tierney, the primary beneficiary of some recycling programs are ___
    people involved in waste handling politics
  58. According to a post on the discussion last, bottled water contains more potentially harmful ____ than tap water.
    phthalates
  59. The interaction of different substances where the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effect of the separate substances:
    synergism
  60. Biomagnification is associated with all of the following except:
    the development of tolerance to a pesticide or toxin
  61. All of the following are infectious agents except:
    dioxin
  62. All of the following were once primary sources of lead except:
    air ventilation ducks
  63. How a chemical affects an individual depends on:
    the dose of the exposure
  64. Salinization is:
    buildup of salt in soil
  65. The single most effective way to reduce soil erosion is to use:
    contour plowing
  66. Soil erosion became a concern in the U.S. following:
    the Dust Bowl
  67. IPM is a(n) ___________ approach to pest management
    ecosystem
  68. Which is not a fossil fuel?
    geothermal energy
  69. Which of the following offers the most potential in terms of reducing the energy problem in the US?
    conservation
  70. All are features of passive solar design except
    photovoltaic cells on the roof of a house
  71. A type of biomass energy is:
    wood
  72. Fuel cells use (i)_______________ for energy and release (ii)_______________ as waste.
    hydrogen, water
  73. Use of groundwater at a rate faster that it is naturally re-supplied is called:
    overdraft
  74. Massive and rapid algae growth is stimulated by the addition of_______to surface water bodies.
    nitrogen and phosphorus
  75. What does B.O.D. stand for?
    Biochemical Oxygen Demand
  76. The average person in the United States uses ______ gallons of water per day.
    100
  77. Shrimp farms threaten the existence of:
    Mangrove forests
  78. Continental shelves provide _________ of the fishery harvest.
    90%
  79. The goal of the Marine Mammal Protection Act is:
    Optimum sustainable population
  80. Upwellings provide fish with:
    nutrient rich water
  81. Which is not a greenhouse gas?
    sulfur dioxide
  82. Which is not a predicted outcome of global climate change?
    Ocean water becomes alkaline
  83. How much of an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide has occurred since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
    32%
  84. Which refers to the accumulation of a substance in living tissue as it moves through the food web:
    biomagnification
  85. No-till agriculture has___________soil loss in the United States.
    decreased
  86. IPM stands for:
    Integrated Pest Management
  87. Most of the world's food is provided by only______plant species.
    14
  88. BT :
    attacks only specific pests and is safe for humans
  89. Which is NOT a major genetically modified crop?
    wheat
  90. How much of the total world energy does the US consume?
    20%
  91. Where does most of the coal in the US come from?
    strip mining
  92. Fuel-cell-powered cars use ___________ as a fuel.
    hydrogen
  93. When discussing sources of fossil fuels, a reserve can be defined as:
    a source we can access now for a profit
  94. ____ is the ability to move matter.
    energy
  95. Half-life is:
    the length of time for one-half of a isotope to decay to another form
  96. Which is not usually associated with eutrophication?
    Increased heavy metal concentrations
  97. The greatest use of fresh water is for:
    irrigation
  98. The largest groundwater deposit in the world is the:
    Ogllala aquifer
  99. Seawater is about _______salt.
    3.5%
  100. Groundwater accounts for _____of all water used in the United States.
    20%
  101. A high B.O.D. in a river indicates
    that the water quality of the river is poor
  102. Open oceans are called:
    Pelagic zones
  103. Where do most fish we eat come from?
    continental shelves
  104. Algae does not grow in the ________
    benthos
  105. The Gulf Steam provides warmth to:
    Northern Europe
  106. 20% of the nation's commercial shellfish beds have been closed because of:
    pollution
  107. During the last two million years or so, the climate of the Earth has:
    Swung sharply both up and down in temperature
  108. The atmosphere of Venus and Mars is made up of mostly:
    Carbon dioxide
  109. Use of CFCs as propellants was banned in the United States in ______
    1978
  110. Which of the following activities reduces the emissions of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere?
    using less fertilizer
  111. How much atmospheric carbon is emitted in the United States?
    20%
  112. Fish are the main source of protein for ~ _______ of the population.
    .17
  113. Name the three major nuclear radiation particles
    gamma, alpha, beta
  114. Which species has caused the most controversy and greatest regulation of logging practices in the Pacific Northwest?
    spotted owl
  115. A stream that only flows during or shortly after rainfall or during snowmelt may be called _________
    ephemeral
  116. Aerosols reduce the amount of sun that hits the earth by 10% leading to a 50% reduction in associated global warming. This is known as:
    global dimming
  117. The upper surface of groundwater is called the:
    water table
  118. Contamination:
    implies something unfit for a particular use through the introduction of undesirable materials.
  119. Farming can cause:
    a loss of biodiversity
  120. Which soil layer contains organic and mineral materials?
    A horizon
  121. Define synfuels.
    liquid or gaseous fuel from solid fossil fuels
  122. About ________ percent of earth's water is generally suitable for human use:
    1%
  123. What are the 3 major forms of fossil fuels?
    oil, natural gas, coal
  124. Continental shelves are:
    the underwater edges of the continents
  125. Aerosols are less than ____________ and because they are so small, they can remain in the atmosphere a very long time.
    10 microns
  126. A stream that flows all year is called a ___________ stream.
    perennial
  127. ____ is used as the primary source of drinking water for nearly half the people in the United States.
    ground water
  128. A volcano erupts with a large amount of ash expelled. The temperature can be expected to:
    decrease
  129. A "commons" is:
    international territory, used by many nations
  130. Earth's energy balance is the balance between the amount of energy coming:
    in from the sun and the amount of energy radiated out by the Earth.
  131. In ideal farming, the amount of soil lost would never be than the amount of new soil.
    greater, produced
  132. Continental shelves make up only ________% of the oceans, yet provide more than ______ of the fishery harvest, and ______ of the worldÕs fish catch are made in upwellings.
    10, 90, 1/2
  133. Water has a ________ capacity to absorb and store heat.
    high
  134. What organic matter found in abundance in the seafloor could be a new source of natural gas?
    methane hydrates
  135. Which is an example of passive solar energy use?
    planting a deciduous tree in front of one's home for more sunlight exposure in the winter and less sunlight exposure in the summer
  136. Wetlands are natural _____ that help ______ water; plants in wetlands trap ______ and _____
    filters, purify, sediments, toxins
  137. DDT is stored in _____ allowing the chemical to be transferred up the food chain.
    fats and oils of animals
  138. What are the three major crops produced in the world?
    rice, corn, wheat
  139. To be considered freshwater, seawater of 3.5% salt content must be desalinated to ______ % salt content.
    0.05
  140. Minamata disease is caused by:
    mercury poisoning

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