Pharm exam 1 part 1.txt

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Pharm exam 1 part 1.txt
2012-02-11 07:20:44
Pharm exam

part 1
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  1. The selling of many drugs requires a physictian's order, known as the?
  2. is the written order for a drug, along with any specific instructions for compounding, dispensing, and taking the drug. This order may be written by a physician, osteopath, dentist, veterinarian, and others but not by chiropractors or opticians
  3. This does not require a prescription.
    Over-the-counter drug (OTC)
  4. what are the five names that drugs have?
    chemical, code, official, generic, and trade
  5. The name indicating the drug's chemical structure.
    Chemical name
  6. A name assigned by a manufacturer to an experimental chemical that shows potential as a drug. An example is aerosol SCH 1000, which was the code name for ipratropium bromide, a parasympatholytic bronchodilator
    Code name
  7. The name assigned to a chemical by the United States Adopted Name (USAN) Council when the chemical appears to have therapeutic use and the manufacturer wishes to market the drug. Instead of a numeric or alphanumeric code, as in the code name, this name often is loosely based on the drug's chemical structure.
    Generic name
  8. is filed with the FDA for the chemical being examined. includes all of the information previously gathered and plans for human studies. These studies proceed in three phases and usually require about 3 years to complete.
    (IND) invectigational new drug application
  9. How many phases are there to IND?
  10. The drug is investigated in a small group of healthy volunteers to establish its activity. This investigation is the basis for the pharmacokinetic description of the drug (rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). Which IND phase?
    Phase 1
  11. The drug is next investigated as a treatment in a small number of individuals with the disease the drug is intended to treat. Which phase of the IND?
    Phase 2
  12. The drug is investigated in large, multicenter studies to establish safety and efficacy. Whioch phase of the IND?
    Phase 3
  13. After a successful IND process, ________is filed with the FDA, and, on approval, the drug is released for general clinical use. A detailed reporting system is in place for the first 6 months to track any problems that arise with the drug's use. The drug is no longer experimental (investigational) and can be prescribed for treatment of the general population by physicians.
    New drug application (NDA)
  14. A detailed reporting system is in place for a NDA for how long?
    6 months
  15. is a drug or biologic product for the diagnosis or treatment of a rare disease.
    Orphan drug
  16. the pharmacist may provide any manufacturer's version of the prescribed drug and not a specific brand.
    generic substitution
  17. ac
    before a meal
  18. ad lib
    as much as desired
  19. alt hor
    every ther hour
  20. ag dest
    distilled water
  21. /c (line above the letter)
  22. cap
  23. cc
    cubic centemeter
  24. dil
  25. ex ag
    in water
  26. g
  27. gr
  28. gtt
  29. hs
  30. IM
  31. IV
  32. L
  33. nebul
    a spray
  34. npo
    nothing by mouth
  35. /P ( line above the letter)
  36. pc
    after meals
  37. po
    by mouth ( per os)
  38. prn
    as needed
  39. q
  40. qh
    every hour
  41. qid
    four times a day
  42. qod
    every other day
  43. qs
    as much as required
  44. /S (line above the letter)
  45. sol
  46. /SS (line above the letters)
  47. stat
  48. syr
  49. tab
    tablet or tablets
  50. tid
    three times daily
  51. tr, tinct
  52. are central to respiratory care in pulmonary diseases. This group of drugs includes adrenergic, anticholinergic, mucoactive, corticosteroid, antiasthmatic, and antiinfective agents and surfactants instilled directly into the trachea.
    Aerosolized agents
  53. What are the five advantages of aerosol delivery?
    Smaller doses given systemically, side effects are fewer and less severe, onset is rapid, target to the resp syst, and is painless/safe/convient
  54. antibiotics or antituberculous drugs
    antiinfective agents
  55. curariform agents and others
    Neuromuscular blocking agents
  56. analgesics and sedatives/hypnotics
    Central nervous system agents
  57. cardiac glycosides and lidocaine
    Antiarrhythmic agents
  58. �-blocking agents or nitroglycerin
    Antihypertensive and antianginal agents
  59. heparin or streptokinase
    Anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents
  60. thiazides or furosemide
  61. Taking a substance, typically in the form of gases, fumes, vapors, mists, aerosols, or dusts, into the body by breathing in
  62. Limited to the area of treatment
    Local effect
  63. Amount of drug that is made available to the lung out of the total available to the body.
    Lung availability/total systemic availability ratio (L/T ratio)
  64. Any way other than the intestine, most commonly an injection
  65. Mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effect in the body.
  66. Study of genetic factors and their influence on drug response.
  67. Time course and disposition of a drug in the body, based on its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.
  68. Cell component that combines with a drug to change or enhance the function of the cell.
  69. Relationship between a drug's chemical structure and the outcome it has on the body.
    Structure-activity relationship (SAR)
  70. Drug interaction that occurs from two or more drug effects that are greater than if the drugs were given alone.
  71. Pertains to the whole body, whereas the target for the drug is not local, possibly causing side effects
    Systemic effect
  72. Rapid decrease in response to a drug.
  73. Difference between the minimal therapeutic and toxic concentrations of a drug; the smaller the difference, the greater chance the drug will be toxic.
    Therapeutic index TI
  74. Decreasing intensity of response to a drug over time
  75. Use of the skin or mucous membrane
  76. Use of the skin
  77. The entire course of action of a drug, from dose to effect, can be understood in three phases:
    drug administration phase, pharmacokinetic phase, and pharmacodynamic phase
  78. identifies drug dosage forms and routes of administration
    drug administration
  79. describes the factors determining drug absorption, distribution in the body, metabolism, and breakdown of the active drug to its metabolites and elimination of active drug and inactive metabolites from the body
    pharmacokinetic phase
  80. What are the two key topics of the drug administration phase?
    Drug dosage form and route of administration
  81. is the physical state of the drug in association with nondrug components
    the drug dosage form
  82. is the portal of entry for the drug into the body, such as oral (enteral), injection, or inhalation
    The route of administration
  83. A drug is the active ingredient in a dose formulation, but it is usually not the only ?