Pharm exam 1 part 2.txt

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Pharm exam 1 part 2.txt
2012-02-11 07:23:21
Pharm exam

part 2
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  1. occurs in the aqueous compartments of the body, such as the interstitial spaces or within a cell. Transport across epithelial linings is restricted because of small pore size; capillaries have larger pores, allowing passage of most drug molecules
    Aqueous diffusion
  2. is an important mechanism for drug absorption because of the many epithelial membranes that must be crossed if a drug is to distribute in the body and reach its target organ
    Lipid diffusion
  3. Epithelial cells have lipid membranes, and a drug must be ________ to diffuse across such a membrane
    lipid-soluble (nonionized, and nonpolar)
  4. Because an acid contributes protons (H+ ions), the protonated form is neutral, or nonionized.
    Weak acid
  5. Because a base accepts protons (H+ ions), the unprotonated form is neutral, or nonionized
    Weak Base
  6. Some drugs, such as ethanol, are neutral molecules and are always
  7. refers to the incorporation of a substance into a cell by a process of membrane engulfment and transport of the substance to the cell interior in vesicles, allowing translocation across a membrane barrier.
  8. embedded in the membrane can transport some substances, such as amino acids, sugars, or naturally occurring peptides and the drugs that resemble these substances
    Special carrier molecules
  9. indicates the proportion of a drug that reaches the systemic influenced not only by absorption, but also by inactivation caused by stomach acids and by metabolic degradation, which can occur before the drug reaches the main systemic compartment
  10. To be effective at its desired site of action, a drug must have a certain concentration. the lowest concentration of a drug at which a microbial population is inhibited
    minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
  11. is the process by which a drug is transported to its sites of action, eliminated, or stored
    Drug Distribution
  12. refers literally to the small intestine, but the enteral route of administration is more broadly applicable to administration of drugs intended for absorption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract
  13. What are the routes of administration?
    Enteral, Parenteral, Transdermal, Inhalation, and topical
  14. what is the most common enteral route?
    By mouth
  15. If the drug is not destroyed or inactivated in the stomach and can be absorbed into the bloodstream, distribution throughout the body and a __________can be achieved
    Systemic effect
  16. means �besides the intestine,� which implies any route of administration other than enteral
    Parenteral (injectable)
  17. What are the four ways of administering injections?
    Intravenous (IV), Intramuscular (IM), Subcutaneous (SC), Intrachecal (IT), and Intraosseous (IO)
  18. Injected directly into the vein, allowing nearly instantaneous access to the systemic circulation. Drugs can be given as a bolus, in which case the entire dose is given rapidly, leading to a sharp increase in the plasma concentration, or a steady infusion can be used to avoid this precipitous increase
    Intravenous (IV)
  19. Injected deep into a skeletal muscle. Because the drug must be absorbed from the muscle into the systemic circulation, the drug effects occur more gradually than with intravenous injection, although typically more rapidly than by the oral route.
    Intramuscular (IM)
  20. Injected into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the epidermis and the dermis.
    Subcutaneous (SC)
  21. Injected into the arachnoid membrane of the spinal cord to diffuse throughout the spinal fluid.
    Intrathecal (IT)
  22. Injected into the marrow of the bone
    Intraosseous (IO)
  23. formulated for application to the skin to produce a systemic effect.
  24. drugs givem for either a systemic effect or a local effect in the lung.
  25. The general rational for what kind of drug is to the airways for treating respiratory disease is the local delivery of the drug to the target organ, with reduced or minimal body exposure to the drug and, it is hoped, reduced prevalence or severity of possible side effects
  26. Drugs can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes to produce a local effect. Such drugs are often formulated to minimize systemic absorption
  27. include the application of corticosteroid cream to an area of contact dermatitis (e.g., poison ivy), administration of an eye drop containing a �-adrenergic antagonist to control glaucoma, and instillation of nasal drops containing an a-adrenergic agonist to relieve congestion
    topical administration
  28. refers to the time course and disposition of a drug in the body, based on its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.
    pharmacokinetic phase
  29. describes what the body does to a drug
  30. describes what the drug does to the body
  31. The lining of the lower respiratory tract also presents barriers to drug absorption. This mucosal barrier consists of the following five identifiable elements:
    Airway surface liquid, epitherlial cells, basement membrane, Interstitium, capillary vascular network
  32. is the same as the volume of the plasma compartment. Describes a useful mathematical equation relating the total amount of drug in the body to the plasma concentration:
    Volume of disribution (VD)
  33. VD =
    drug amount/plasma concentration
  34. is a primary site of drug metabolism and biotransformation.
    The liver
  35. the site of primary drug excretion, although drug and metabolites can also be excreted in the feces.
  36. is the principal organ for drug metabolism, although other tissues, including the lung, intestinal wall, and endothelial vascular wall, can transform or metabolize drugs