Ch3_Medical_Terminology_Part5_Bones_of_Skeleton

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havenwood
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134392
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Ch3_Medical_Terminology_Part5_Bones_of_Skeleton
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2012-02-11 11:55:44
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Ch3 Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E JCCC AAC 130 Bones Skelton
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Ch3 Part5 Medical Terminology for Health Professionals 6E AAC 130
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  1. Axial Skeleton
    • 1. 80 bones of:
    • .....a. Skull
    • .....b. Ribs
    • .....c. Sternum
    • .....d. Thoracic vertebrae
    • .....e. Other vertebrae of spinal column

    • 2. Protects major organs of following systems:
    • .....a. Nervous
    • .....b. Respiratory
    • .....c. Circulatory
  2. Appendicular Skeleton
    • 1. 126 bones of:
    • .....a. Upper Extremities:
    • ..........(1) shoulders
    • ..........(2) arms
    • ..........(3) forearms
    • ..........(4) wrists
    • ..........(5) hands
    • .....b. Lower Extremities:
    • ..........(1) hips
    • ..........(2) thighs
    • ..........(3) legs
    • ..........(4) ankles
    • ..........(5) feet

    2. Makes body movement possible.

    • 3. Protects the organs of:
    • .....a. Digestion
    • .....b. Excretion
    • .....c. Reproduction
  3. Bones of Skull - Cranium & Auditory Ossicles
    • 1. Cranium:
    • .....a. Made up of 8 bones:
    • ..........(1) Frontal bone
    • ..........(2) Parietal bones - 2
    • ..........(3) Occiptal bone
    • ..........(4) Temporal bones - 2
    • ..........(5) Sphenoid bone
    • ..........(6) Ethmoid bone (incuding middle nasal conchae of ethmoid bone)
    • .....b. Portion of skull that encloses brain

    • 2. Auditory Ossicles:
    • .....a. 6 bones of the middle ear:
    • .....b. External auditory meatus
    • ..........(1) Located IN temporal bones
    • ..........(2) Opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear.
  4. Bones of Skull - Face
    • 1. Made up of 18 bones:
    • .....a. Nasal bones - 2
    • .....b. Zygomatic bones - 2
    • .....c. Maxillary bones - 2
    • .....d. Palatine bones - 2
    • .....e. Lacrimal bones - 2
    • .....f. Inferior nasal conchae - 2
    • .....g. Vomer bone - 1
    • .....h. Mandible - 1 (Only moveable bone in skull)

    • 3. Temporomandibular joint
    • .....a. Where mandible attaches to skull at temporal bones.
    • .....b. Known as the TMJ.
    • .....c. Is a synovial joint with articular disk (the sternoclavicular is another example.)
  5. Thoracic Cavity
    • 1. The rib cage is the bony structure that protects:
    • .....a. Heart
    • .....b. Lungs

    • 2. Consists of:
    • .....a. Ribs - 12 PAIRS:
    • ..........(1) All attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
    • ..........(2) True Ribs:
    • ...............(a.) First 7 pairs
    • ...............(b.) Attach anteriorly to sternum
    • ..........(3) False ribs
    • ...............(a.) Next 3 pairs
    • ................(b.) Attach anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum.
    • ..........(4) Floating ribs
    • ................(a.) Last 2 pairs
    • ................(b.) Only attached posteriorly
    • .....b. Sternum:
    • ..........(1) Breastbone
    • ..........(2) Forms middle of the front of the rib cage
    • ..........(3) Divided into 3 parts:
    • ...............(a.) Manubrium - upper portion
    • ...............(b.) Body of the Sternum - middle portion
    • ...............(c.) Xiphoid process - lower portion
    • .....c. Upper portion of spinal column extending from neck to diaphragm, not including arms.
  6. Shoulders
    1. Form pectoral girdle (also known as shoulder girdle) to support rms and hands.

    • 2. Clavicle
    • .....a. Collar bone
    • .....b. Connects manubrium to scapula

    3. Scapula - Shoulder blade

    • 4. Acromion
    • .....a. Extension of the scapula
    • .....b. High point of shoulder
  7. Arms
    1. Humerus - upper arm

    • 2. Radius
    • .....a. Smaller & shorter bone of forearm
    • .....b. Runs up thumb side of forearm

    • 3. Ulna
    • .....a. Larger & longer bone of forearm
    • .....b. Proximal end of the ulna articulates with distal end of humerus

    • 4. Olecranon process
    • .....a. Funny bone
    • .....b. Large projection on upper end of ulna
    • .....c. Forms point of elbow
    • .....d. Exposes a nerve that tingles when struck.
  8. Wrists, Hands, and Fingers
    • 1. Carpals
    • .....a. 8 Bones
    • .....b. Form wrist
    • .....c. Form carpal tunnel - narrow bony passageway for:
    • ..........(1) medial nerve
    • ..........(2) tendons of the fingers

    • 2. Metacarpals
    • .....a. 5 bones
    • .....b. Form palm of hand

    • 3. Phalanges
    • .....a. 14 bones of the fingers
    • .....b. Fingers:
    • ..........(1) Four fingers
    • ..........(2) Each finger has 3 phalanges
    • ................(a.) Distal (outermost - finger tips)
    • ................(b.) Middle
    • ................(c.) Proximal (innermost - closest to palm)
    • .....c. Thumb:
    • ..........(1) Has only 2 phalanges
    • ................(a.) Distal (thumb tip)
    • ................(b.) Proximal (connects to Singular metacarpal)
    • .....d. SINGULAR of phalanges is PHALANX
    • .....e. Bones of toes are also known as phalanges
  9. Spinal column
    1. Supports head and boy

    2. Protects the spinal cord.

    3. Also known as vertebral column.

    4. 26 vertebrae - a VERTEBRA is a single segment of the spinal column.

    • 5. Structures of a vertebra:
    • ......a. Body of the vertebra - soldi anterior portion
    • ......b. Lamina:
    • ...........(1) Posterior portion
    • ...........(2) Transverse and spinous processes extend from this area.
    • ......c. Vertebral foramen
    • ...........(1) Opening in middle of the vertebra
    • ...........(2) Spinal cord passes through this opening

    • Types of vertebrae:
    • .....a. Cervical - C1 - C7:
    • ..........(1) First 7 vertebrae
    • ..........(2) Form neck
    • .....b. Thoracic - T1 - T12:
    • ..........(1) Second set of 12 vertebrae
    • ..........(2) Form outward curve of spine
    • .....c. Lumbar - L1 - L5:
    • ..........(1) Third set of 5
    • ..........(2) Form inward curve of spine
    • ..........(3) Largest and strongest of vertebrae
    • ..........(4) Bear most of body weight

    • 6. Sacrum:
    • .....a. Slightly curved, triagular-shaped bone near base of spine
    • .....b. Former lower portion of back
    • .....c. At birth is composed of 5 separate bones that fuse in young child to form a single bone.

    • 7. Coccyx:
    • .....a. Tailbone
    • .....b. Forms end of spine
    • .....c. Actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together.

    • 8. Intervertebral disks:
    • .....a. Made of cartilage
    • .....b. Separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other.
    • .....c. Act as shock absorbers
    • .....d. Allow for movement of the spinal column.
  10. Pelvic Girdle
    1. Protects internal organs and supports lower extremities.

    2. Also known a pelvis or hips.

    3. Cup-shaped ring of bone at lower end of trunk

    • 4. Consists of:
    • .....a. Ilium:
    • ..........(1) Broad blade-shaped bone
    • ..........(2) Forms back and side of the pubic bone
    • .....b. Sacroiliac:
    • ..........(1) SLIGHTLY moveable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
    • .....c. Ischium:
    • ...........(1) Forms lower posterior portion of the pubic bone
    • ...........(2) Bears weight of body when sitting
    • .....Pubis:
    • ..........(1) Forms anterior portion of pubic bone
    • ..........(2) Located just below urinary bladder

    5. Pubic bones: Ilium ischium, and pubis are separate at birth but fuse to form right and left pubic bones.

    6. Pubic symphysis: Hold pubic bones together securely by pubic

    • 7. Acetabulum:
    • .....a. Also known as the hip socket
    • .....b. Large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis
    • .....c. Articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
  11. Legs and knees
    • 1. Femur:
    • .....a. Upper leg bone.
    • .....b. Also known as thigh bone.
    • .....c. Largest bone in human body.
    • .....d. Head of femur - articulates with the acetabulum (hip socket) to form hip joint.
    • .....e. Femoral neck - narrow area just below the head of the femur.

    • 2. Knees
    • .....a. Complex hinge joints between upper and lower leg
    • ......b. Consists of:
    • ..........(1) Patella
    • ...............(a.) Bony anterior portion of knee
    • ...............(b.) Also known as kneecap
    • ..........(2) Popliteal
    • ...............(a.) Posterior space behind knee
    • ...............(b.) Location of :
    • .....................* Ligaments
    • .....................* Vessels
    • ..................... * Muscles related to the knee joint
    • ..........(3) Cruciate ligaments:
    • ...............(a.) Make movements of knee possible
    • ...............(b.) Anterior and posterior
    • ...............(c.) cross-shaped in middle of knee joint

    • 3. Lower Leg
    • .....a. Made up of 2 bones:
    • ..........(1) Tibia:
    • ................(a.) Also known as shinbone
    • ................(b.) Larger weight-bearing bone in anterior of lower leg
    • ..........(2) Fibula:
    • ................(a.) Smaller of two bones
    • ................(b.) Lateral and posterior to tibia
    • ..........(3) Malleolus:
    • ................(a.) Rounded bony protuberance on each side of ankle
    • ...............(b.) Plural: Malleoli

    • 4. Ankles:
    • .....a. Form joint between the lower leg and the foot
    • .....b. Each made up of:
    • ..........(1) Tarsal
    • ...............(a.) 7 short bones
    • ...............(b.) Similar to carpal bones of wrist but larger
    • ...............(c.) Calcaneus
    • ....................(i.) Largest of the tarsal bones
    • ....................(ii.) Also known as the heel bone

    • 5. Feet and toes
    • .....a. Metatarsals:
    • ..........(1) 5 metatarsal bones
    • ..........(2) Form part of foot to which toes attach
    • .....b. Phalages
    • ..........(1) Bones of toes
    • ..........(2) Great toe has 2 phalanges
    • ..........(3) Each other toe has 3 phalanges
    • ..........(4) Bones of fingers are also called phalanges

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