Parasitology

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ithappens442
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Parasitology
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2012-02-11 10:58:42
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Parasitology
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    • Balantidium coli
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Ciliophora. Ciliate Disease: Balantidiasis
    • Location in host: Colon
    • Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst stageLife stage: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: demonstration of parasite in feces!

    • Trophozoite Cyst cyst wall
    • • large, ovoid, measuring50-200um
    • • rapid rotary movement by cilia
    • • Cytostome- mouth; a deepdepression in anterior end
    • • 2 nuclei: a kidney bean-shaped macronucleus,and a micronucleus
    • • cytoplasm may contain numerous vacuoles
    • • spherical to oval shaped
    • • 50-70um • cilia not often visible
    • • thick cyst wall
    • • 2 nuclei: kidney bean-shaped macronucleus and a micronucleus
    • • food and contractile vacuoles may be present Macronucleus

    • Giardia lamblia
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Flagellate.
    • Disease: Giardiasis
    • Location in host: Small intestine Life cycle:
    • Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst stage
    • Life stage: Trophozoite and CystDiagnosis: by demonstration of parasite in feces
    • Trophozoite Cyst
    • • pear shaped, 10-20um
    • • falling leaf motility
    • • bilaterally symmetrical
    • • 2 nuclei with central karyosome; noperipheral chromatin
    • • 2 sucking discs, 8 flagella, axoneme
    • • ovoid, 8-19um
    • • nuclei w/ central karyosome, no peripheralchromatin
    • • mature cysts have 4 nuclei; immature have 2
    • • visible axoneme


    • Chilomastix mesnili
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Flagellate.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic
    • Location in host: Primarily large intestine, but may occur in small intestine.
    • Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst stage.
    • Life stages: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: demonstration of parasite in feces. Trophozoite Cyst
    • • pear shaped, 6-24um
    • • uninucleate with large karyosome situated centrally or against nuclear membrane;peripheral chromatin evenly distributed
    • • prominent cytostome may extend up to 1/2 of body
    • • lemon shaped, 7-9um
    • • uninucleate with largekaryosome; peripheral chromatin
    • • anterior hyaline knob
    • • cytostome (mouth)
    • Dientamoeba fragilis
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Flagellate.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic but may cause diarrhea and abdominal discomfort.
    • Location in host: Colon Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of trophozoite stage, or transmission within some helminth eggs
    • Life stage: Trophozoite onlyDiagnosis: Demonstration of trophozoite in feces.
    • • amoeboid shape, 5-15um
    • • most have 2 nuclei, some have 1nucleus;
    • • central karyosome is in a cluster of granules (“fragmented” karyosome)
    • • no peripheral chromatin
    • • cytoplasm: may be granular, vacuolated,and contain debris, bacteria or yeast
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Flagellate.
    • Disease: Vaginal trichomoniasis in females; may cause infections of the prostate and epididymis in males
    • Location in host: Vaginal mucosal surface; Prostate gland, seminal vesicles Life cycle: Direct transmission of trophozoite during sexual intercourseLife stage: Trophozoite only
    • Diagnosis: demonstration of parasite in vaginal secretions, scrapings, urethral discharge, urine flagella undulating membrane nucleus
    • • pyriform shape, 7-23um
    • • jerky movement
    • • 4 anterior flagella
    • • undulating membrane extends to 1/2 of body
    • • large nucleus at anterior end axostyle
    • Naegleria species
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)
    • Location in host: Brain and CSF Life cycle: external environment, water --> nares -->brainLife stage: Trophozoite (and cyst in nature only)
    • Diagnosis: demonstration of parasite in CSF and brain tissue nucleus w/ largekaryosome
    • • amoeboid, 10-20um
    • • blunt pseudopodia
    • • cytoplasm: granular, vacuolated
    • • large nucleus with large centralkaryosome, no peripheral chromatin
    • • trophozoites may have >2 nuclei


    • Acanthamoeba species
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis; Acanthamoeba keratitisLocation in host: Brain, skin, eye, lungs Life cycle: external environment --> parasite enters skin lesions/ inhalation of cystLife stage: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: demonstration of parasite in brain tissue or skin lesions, and corneal scrapings Trophozoite Cyst
    • • free living in nature
    • • 20-40 um
    • • slender acanthopodia
    • • cytoplasm: granular, vacuolated
    • • 1 large nucleus with central karyosome, noperipheral chromatin
    • • 12-20 um
    • • double wall: wrinkled outer wall (exocyst,) smoother inner wall (endocyst)
    • • uninucleate with large karyosome




    • Entamoeba hartmanii
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic
    • Location in host: Lumen of colon and cecum. Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst
    • Life stage: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite in feces Trophozoite Cyst nucleus w/ smallcentrally locatedkaryosome
    • • 8-10um
    • • uninucleate; small, central karyosome
    • • fine, evenly distributed peripheral chromatin
    • • cytoplasm: finely granular, may contain bacteria
    • • non-directional movement
    • • 5-10um
    • • mature cysts have 4 nuclei, immature have 1 or 2.
    • • maximum 4 nuclei
    • • nucleus have small discrete karyosome • chromatoid bodies: elongated, blunt

    1. Typical of E. histolytica and E. hartmanii: Small central karyosome with evenly distributed peripheral chromatin


    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Amoebiasis.
    • Location in host: Lumen of colon and cecum;
    • Tissue: colon, extraintestinal Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst stageLife stage: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: by demonstration of parasite in feces, or histologic specimens Trophozoite Cyst
    • • 10-60um (invasive forms bigger than noninvasive)
    • • progressive, explosive motility
    • • uninucleate w/ small compact karyosome(usu. central, may be eccentric)
    • • peripheral chromatin: fine, evenly distributed
    • • cytoplasm: may be vacuolated, contain bacteriaand RBCs
    • • 10-20um
    • • up to 4 nuclei
    • • nucleus: small central karyosome
    • • peripheral chromatin: fine, evenly distributed
    • • chromatoid bodies: elongated, rounded
    • • may contain glycogen vacuoles

    1. Typical of E. histolytica and E. hartmanii: Small central karyosome with evenly distributed peripheral chromatin


    • Entamoeba coli
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic.
    • Location in host: Lumen of colon and cecum.
    • Life cycle: Direct transmission by ingestion of cyst stage.
    • Life stage: Trophozoite and Cyst.Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite in feces. Trophozoite Cyst
    • • 15-50um
    • • sluggish movement/non-directional
    • • single nucleus with large, non-compact karyosome
    • • karyosome usually eccentric
    • • peripheral chromatin: coarse granules, irregulardistribution • cytoplasm: coarsely granular, vacuolated, contains bacteria, yeast, debris
    • • 10-35um
    • • spherical or oval
    • • up to 8 nuclei
    • • same nuclear characteristics as trophozoite,but may not be as well defined
    • • chromatoid bodies: elongated, splintered ends

    2. Typical of E. coli: large, eccentric karyosome with uneven peripheral chromatin.


    • Endolimax nana
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic
    • .Location in host: Lumen of colon and cecum.
    • Life cycle: By ingestion of cyst stage.Life stage: Trophozoite and Cyst
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite in feces. Trophozoite Cyst
    • • 6-12um
    • • sluggish movement
    • • single nucleus with large, irregular-shapedkaryosome
    • • no peripheral chromatin
    • • cytoplasm: coarsely granular, may contain vacuoles and bacteria
    • • 5-10um
    • • spherical, ellipsoidal
    • • up to 4 nuclei
    • • nucleus: distinct karyosome, no peripheral chromatin
    • • chromatoid bodies: absent

    3. Typical of E. nana: large karyosome with no peripheral chromatin


    • Iodamoeba species
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Amoeba.
    • Disease: Non-pathogenic.
    • Location in host: Lumen of colon and cecum.
    • Life cycle: Transmission by ingestion of cyst stage.
    • Life stage: Trophozoite and Cyst.
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite in feces. Trophozoite Cyst
    • • 8-20um
    • • sluggish, non-progressive movement
    • • single nucleus with large central karyosome(may be surrounded by achromatic granules)
    • • peripheral chromatin: absent
    • • cytoplasm: coarsely granular, vacuolated, may contain bacteria, yeast, debris
    • • may resemble E. nana, but 2x bigger
    • • 5-20um
    • • spherical, ellipsoidal
    • • only 1 nucleus, large karyosome
    • • peripheral chromatin: absent
    • • compact mass of glycogen vacuole glycogenvacuole

    4. Typical of Iodamoeba species: large central karyosome surrounded with achromatic granules;no peripheral chromatin.




    • Blastocystis hominis
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Disease: Non-pathogenic but may cause abdominal discomfort and diarrhea.
    • Location in host: Intestinal tract.
    • Life cycle: unknown
    • Life stage: Cyst. Trophozoite stage unknown.
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of cyst stage in feces.
    • • spherical, 6-35um
    • • large central body (visuallyresembling a vacuole)
    • • narrow rim of cytoplasmcontaining nuclei




    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Apicomplexa. Malaria. Disease: Falciparum or malignant tertian malaria.
    • Location in host: Ring stages and Gametocytes in peripheral RBCs; growing Trophozoites and Schizonts in visceral blood; Exoerythrocytic bodies in hepatic parenchymal cells
    • Life stages: Ring forms, Trophozoite, Gametocyte, SchizontIncubation period: 8-20 days
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite stages in RBCs. Requires a Giemsa Stain.
    • Most pathogenic of all human malarias
    • Red Blood Cell: normal in size
    • A ring form showing characteristic!
    • A typical gametocyte (“banana” shape);!
    • A schizont accolé form. Multiple infection a blood cell with a ring form and a growing common! trophozoite inside






    • Plasmodium malariae
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Apicomplexa. Malaria. Disease: Quartan malaria
    • .Location in host: Trophozoites, Schizonts, and Gametocytes in RBCs; Exoerythrocytic bodies in hepatic parenchymal cells
    • Life stages: Ring form, Trophozoite, Schizont, Gametocyte
    • Incubation period: 28-69 days
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite stages in RBCs. Requires a Giemsa stain.Much lower prevalance of infection than P. falciparum and P. vivax
    • Red Blood Cell: normal or 3/4 smaller in size
    • A ring form Band-form Trophozoite Mature Schizont, “rosette-like”Gametocyte formation of merozoites






    • Plasmodium vivax
    • Classification: Protozoa. Phylum Apicomplexa. Malaria. Disease: Vivax or benign tertian malaria.Location in host: Trophozoites, Schizonts, and Gametocytes in RBCs; Exoerythrocytic bodies in hepatic parenchymal cells
    • Life stages: Ring forms, Trophozoites, Gametocytes, SchizontsIncubation period: 10-17 days
    • Diagnosis: Demonstration of parasite stages in RBCs. Requires a Giemsa stain.
    • Red Blood Cell: normal to enlarged, and distorted. Schüffner’s dots may be seen in Giemsa-stained smears.
    • A Ring form; a RBC withSchüffner’s stippling showing a young trophozoite Trophozoite in a RBCwith light stippling Mature Schizont Mature Gametocyte

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