MSII Test 1 part 2

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MSII Test 1 part 2
2012-02-11 16:26:14
MSII Test part

MSII Test 1 part 2
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  1. Neutrophils
    fight bacterial infections, most numerous, 60% of all WBC
  2. Eosinophils
    combat parasitic infections and are associated with allergic reactions and other inflammatory processes
  3. Basophils
    initiates a massive inflammatory response that brings other WBCs to site of infection; work with IgE which triggers basophils to release histamine
  4. Monocytes
    circulate in the blood and then enter tissue; can survive for months to years
  5. Lymphocytes
    coordinate actions of other immune cells via CSF; increase in diverse infections and immune responses
  6. Why are skin tests done
    to determine whether cell mediated immune functions are normal
  7. Stool cultures
    used to detect and identify microorganisms in the stool
  8. Shift to the left
    when neutrophils are >60% and indicates that bone marrow has been stimulated to produce more neutrophils to fight off infection
  9. ANC calculation
    (%neutro + %bands) X WBC
  10. Most common sites of infection in neutropenic patients
    lung, blood, skin, urinary tract and GI tract
  11. Acute leukemias are generally treated with
    high doses of chemo (inductions)
  12. Type I hypersensitivity
    mediated by IgE reacting to common allergens, such as dust, pollen
  13. Type II hypersensitivity
    mediated by antibody reactions like with mismatched blood transfusion or response to various drugs
  14. Type III hypersensitivity
    some autoimmune reactions, occupational diseases, or response to various drugs
  15. Type IV hypersensitivity
    delayed reactions, TB skin testing, contact dermatitis
  16. Basophils do what
    secrete histamine and heparin
  17. Mast cells are
    stuck on blood vessel in connective tissue near capillary
  18. Basophils move around
    Mast cells stay put
  19. Normal WBC
  20. Corticosteroids should not be used in acute appendicitis
    will mask symptoms instead of show disease
  21. Most common anaphylaxis
  22. Active immunity
    illness, vaccination, permanent
  23. Passive immunity
    snake bite (immunoglobin injection), breastmilk or placenta
  24. Innate immunity
    non specific, 24/7, skin and mucous membranes, inflammation
  25. Acquired active
    active-only when needed
  26. Acquired passive
  27. Lymph system
    maintain fluid balance, protect body from infection and disease
  28. Lymph
    clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma but much mess protein (albumin), originates as tissue fluid
  29. Spleen filters
  30. IgA
    on all mucous membranes-prevents bacteria from attacking to mucous membranes; passed on in mother�s milk
  31. IgG
    passed through placenta
  32. Antibody mediated
    B cell
  33. Cell mediated
    T c
  34. IgM
    created by plasma cells
  35. IgG
    attacks specific antigen
  36. Which immunoglobin enhances phagocytosis
    IgG (majority of immunoglobins)
  37. WBC involved in immunity are produced in
    bone marrow
  38. What is a major function of the natural immune system in response to tissue injury or invading organism
  39. Chemo and radiation�
    both suppress bone marrow
  40. Life threatening complications
    bleeding and infection
  41. Interferon deals with
    viruses, not bacteria
  42. IgG and IgM
    enhance phagocytosis
  43. Two kinds of acquired immunity
    humoral/antibacterial and cell mediated
  44. Antibody mediated (extracellular)
    initiated when IgM on B lymphocytes detect a foreign antigen; can be active or passive
  45. Cell mediated (intracellular)
    aimed at intracellular defects caused by viruses and cancer-T cells destroy defective cell; responsible for delayed hypersensitivity reactions and rejection of transplanted tissue
  46. Plasma cells
    produce IgM
  47. Memory B cells
    produce IgG
  48. T cell activation
    kills whole cell
  49. Causes of neutropenia
    decreased production (chemo, radiation, matastic cancer) and increased destruction (medication induced, viral disease, bacterial infections)
  50. Stomatitis
    inflammation of mucous membranes in the mouth
  51. Most common metastis
    liver, brain, bone, lungs
  52. Highest estimates of new cancers
    Prostate and Breast
  53. Highest deaths
    lung and bronchus
  54. Initiation
    Cell appears somewhat abnormal but continues to function normally
  55. Promotion
    Latent period before increased growth forms tumors
  56. Progression
    Tumor development-cells mutate
  57. Metastasis
    Transformed cells relocate by direct extension, invasion, establishment of remote cites
  58. Fibroma
    Fibrous connective tissue
  59. Lipoma
    Fat tissue
  60. Leiomyoomas
    Smooth muscle tissue
  61. Carcinoma
    Skin, glands, linings or digestive, urinary, respiratory tracts
  62. Sarcoma
    Bone, muscle, other connective tissue
  63. Melanoma
    Pigment cells in the skin
  64. Leukemia and lymphoma
    Blood forming tissues-lymphoid, plasma, bone marrow
  65. ABCD of a tumor
    asymmetry, border, color, diameter
  66. Warning signs of cancer
    change in bowel or bladder,a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding, thickening of lump in breast, indigestion or difficulty swallowing, obvious change in wart or mole, nagging cough
  67. Most metastasis is
    by the blood and lymph
  68. TNM
    T=tumor, N-regional lymph nodes, M-distant metastasis
  69. Extravasation
    Escape of fluid or blood from a blood vessel into body tissue
  70. CSFactors
    stimulate the bone marrow to produce platelets, red and white blood cells
  71. Spleen
    produces erythrocytes
  72. Cytokines
    communicate with cells
  73. Leukemia
    high WBC count, but immature and nonfunctioning cells
  74. Inflammatory process
    series of cellular changes that signal the body�s response to injury or infection
  75. Cortisol
    anti-inflammatory substance that slows release of histamine, prevents influx of leukocytes, stabilizes lysosomal membranes
  76. Invasion by microorganisms, multiplication of invading organisms and resulting tissue damage
    infections-infection is a specific process
  77. Chain of infection
    Causative agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transfer, portal of entry, mode susceptible host
  78. Infections caused by the treatment given to the patient
    iatrogenic infection