The Digestive System

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The Digestive System
2012-02-14 18:45:02
Digestive System

Chpt 17 Digestive System
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  1. Foods undergo which 3 forms of processing in the body?
    • digestion
    • absorpotion
    • metabolism
  2. Define deglutition
  3. Frenulum
    attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
  4. Define papillae
    • small elevations on the surface of the tongue
    • taste buds are on the side of papillae
  5. Four types of teeth
    • incisors
    • canines (cuspids)
    • premolars (bicuspids)
    • molars (tricuspids)
  6. Define bolus
    food after it has been chewed
  7. Parts of the tooth
    • Crown: visible portion of the tooth
    • Dentin: covers enamel
    • Cementum: root and neck of each tooth
    • Neck: narrow portion surrounded by pink gingival
  8. Leukoplakia
    • white patches within folds of the cheek and gum; usually caused by tobacco and alcohol use
    • may lead to malignant tumor
  9. Dental caries
    • one of most common diseases in the developed world
    • disease of the enamel, dentin and cementum that results in cavities
  10. Gingivitis
    • inflammation or infection of the gums
    • possible complication of diabetes, vitamin deficiency or pregnancy
  11. Thrush/Oral Candidiasis
    • mouth infection caused by yeastlike fungal organism
    • seen in adults with AIDS or on antibiotic therapy
    • found in healthy children
  12. Periodontitits
    • inflammation of the periodontal membrane
    • complication of advanced or untreated gingivitis
    • leading cause of tooth loss among adults
  13. What are the most common forms of congenital defect affecting the mouth?
    cleft lip and cleft palate
  14. Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands
    • parotids
    • submandibulars
    • sublinguals
    • secrete about 1L per day
  15. Salivary amylase
    • begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates
    • found in saliva
  16. 4 layers of the digestive tract
    • inner to outer
    • mucosa (mucous membrane)
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  17. Esophagus
    • muscle lined tube that leads to the stomach
    • each end has a muscular sphincter
    • upper esophageal sphincter (UES): prevent air from entering during respiration
    • lower esophageal sphincter (LES): prevents backflow of acidic stomach contents
  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • chronic inflammation of the esophagus caused by acid reflux
    • if left untreated Barrett esophagus may develop; precancerous condition
  19. Hiatal hernia
    • stomach pushes through gap in the diaphragm that allows the esophagus to pass through it
    • results in acidic contents of the stomach bypassing the LES
  20. Chyme
    partially digested food matter that leaves the stomach
  21. Gastric glands
    glands found within the mucous membrane of the stomach that secretes gastric juices and hydrochloric acid
  22. Intrinsic factor
    • secreted by stomach cells
    • protects vitamin B12 and saves it for absorption by the small intestine
  23. What are the 3 divisions of the stomach
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  24. What is the pyloric sphincter
    gate between the small intestine and the stomach
  25. Disorders of the stomach exhibit these signs and symptoms
    • gastritis: stomach inflammation
    • anorexia
    • nausea
    • emeis: vomiting
  26. Pylorospasm
    • pyloric muscle fibers don't contract in babies and causes vomiting
    • treated with muscle relaxant
  27. Pyloric stenosis
    obstructive narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
  28. Which factors cause an ulcer
    • Helicobacter pylori infection (bacterial)
    • long term NSAID usage
  29. Triple therapy
    • standard antibiotic based treatment used most often to heal and prevent recurrence of ulcers
    • combo of a stomach lining protecter (Pepto) and 2 antibiotics
  30. What are the 4 potential causes of stomach cancer
    • excessive alcohol consumption
    • use of chewing tobacco
    • eating smoked or heavily preserved foods
    • H. pylori infection
  31. Name the 3 different sections of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  32. What is a plicae?
    • circular folds within the lumen of the small intestine that increases surface area
    • increase absorption of water and nutrients
  33. Where does most of the chemical digestion occur in the small intestine?
  34. Purpose of a retrograde endoscopic cholangiography
    allows visualization of the gallbladder and ducts that carry bile
  35. What is malabsorption syndrome
    general term for a group of symptoms resulting in the inability to absorb nutrients properly
  36. Where does the liver store bile
  37. What is cholecystokinin
    • hormone secreted from intestinal mucosa of the duodenum
    • stimulates the gall bladder to release bile
  38. What does the gallbladder do
    concentrates and stores bile that's produced by the liver
  39. what is Cholelithiasis
    technical term for gallstones
  40. What is cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  41. What happens if a gallstone blocks the common bile duct
    • jaundice: blie pigment is absorbed into the blood
    • gray-white feces due to lack of bile secretion
    • biliary colic; pain associated with gallstone blockage
  42. What is a cholecystectomy
    removal of the gallbladder
  43. What is bariatrics
    field of medicine that deals with the treatment of obesity
  44. What is hepatitis
    liver inflammation caused by alcohol, drugs and infection (bacterial, parasitic or viral)
  45. What is cirrhosis
    degenerative liver condition caused by hepatitis, chronic alcohol abuse, malnutrition or infection
  46. What are pancreatic juices
    secretion from the pancrease that digests sugars, proteins and fats
  47. What is acute pancreatitis
    blockage of the common bile duct may cause pancreatic enzymes to digest the pancreas
  48. What are the roles of bacteria in the large intestine
    • digestion
    • vitmain k synthesis
    • B-complex synthesis
  49. Name the subdivisions of the large intestine in order
    • cecum
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  50. Which anal sphincter is voluntary?
    the outer anal sphincter