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ITSM is the effective and efficient process driven management of quality IT Services. The added value to ITSM is that is business aligned and maintains a holistic Service Life cycle approach.
Four Perspectives of ITSM (as found in Service Design Phase):
a set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders.Characteristics of every process include:•They are measurable,•They deliver specific results•They deliver outcomes to customers or stakeholders•They respond to specific events (triggers)
a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks.
A process owner
is responsible for improvements and ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose. They are accountable for the outputs of that process.Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process
is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service and is responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services under their care.
Example: The owner of the Payroll Service.
The process owner and service owner are accountable for the process or service under their care. However they may not be responsible for performing many of the actual activities required for the process or service.
A Process Manager
is responsible for the operational (daily)management of a process. There may be several Managers for the one process.
- The RACI model helps show how a process actually does work end to end across several functional groups by defining roles and responsibilities, as well as organizational structure.
- R Responsibility (actually does the work for that activity but is responsible to the function or position that has an A against it.) eg Process manager
- A Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place, even if they might not do it themselves). eg Process Owner
- C Consult (advice / guidance / information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place).
- I Inform (the function
Service Provider Types
- Internal Service Provider
- Shared Service Provider
- External Service Provider
There are many roles associated with ITIL processes.Each process should have a Process Manager eg Incident Manager. It is also reasonable for each Phase to have a Manager, eg Service Design Manager
all the hardware, software, networks, facilities,services and support elements that are required to develop, test,deliver, monitor, control and support IT Services
A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services
The functions and processes utilized to manage services. Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time.
A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people,money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service.Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an organization.
(also referred to as Best Practice) That which is successful in wide industry use
A team or group of people and the tools they use to carryout one or more Processes or Activities. Functions provide units of organization responsible for specific outcomes.
refers to the person who pays for the service, or has the authority to request a service
An organizations staff member/employee who uses the IT service
refers to a range of repositories for storing and accessing information can include databases, Filing cabinets, storage cupboards etc
Design, develop and implement service management as astrategic asset and assisting growth of the organization
Define the strategic objectives of the IT organization
Utility + Warranty = Value
Utility (fit for purpose) features and support of service
Warranty (fit for use)defines levels of availability, capacity,security, continuity
- Core Service Package
- Supporting Service Package
- Service Level Packages
A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business action. A business case is a justification for a significant item of expenditure. Includes information about costs,benefits, options, issues, risks and possible problems.
Goal: To provide cost effective stewardship of the IT assets and the financial resources used in providing IT services.
Activities:Budgeting IT Accounting Charging
Benefits of Financial Management
- Enhanced decision making
- Increased speed of change
- Improved Service Portfolio Management
- Financial compliance and control
- Operational Control
- Value capture and creation
- Increased visibility
- Increased perception of IT
Service Portfolio Management
Goal: To assist the IT organization in managing investments in service management across the enterprise and maximizing them for value.
- A Service Portfolio describes provider services in terms of business value. They include the complete set of services managed by a Service Provider.
- These portfolios are used to articulate business needs and the providers response to those needs, as well as prioritizing strengths,weaknesses and risks of you, the provider
Service Portfolio contains:
- Service Pipeline: Proposed or in development Service Catalog live/operational or ready for deployment services
- Retired Services decommissioned services
- Investment Categories
- Run the Business
- Grow the Business
- Transform the Business
Goal: To assist the IT Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand for Services and the provision of-capacity to meet these demands in order to reduce excess capacityneeds14.1 Basic
Demand Management is responsible for understanding and strategically responding to business demands for services by:o Analyzing patterns of business activity and user profiles.o Influence demand in line with the strategic objectives
Two ways to influence or manage demand:
- o Physical/Technical constraints
- o Financial constraints
14.2 Key terms:(Specific for Demand Management that you might see on exam!!!!!)PBA: Patterns of Business Activity Influence user behavior
Objective: Convert strategic objectives into portfolios of services and service assets.
Service Design ultimate concern is the design of new or modified services for introduction into a production (live)environment.Service Design is also concerned with the design of new and modified processes required to deliver and support these services.
Aspects of Service Design
- Service Solutions
- o Service Management systems & tools
- o Technology Architectures
- o Processes
- o Measurement Systems and Metrics
All to ensure that standards and conventions are followed
Service Design Packages
Defines all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each stage of its Life cycle. A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service, major Change, or IT Service Retirement.
Typical Service Design Package contents:
- •Business Requirements•Service Applicability
- •Service Contacts
- •Service Functional Requirements
- •Service Level Requirements
- •Service Program
- •Service Transition Plan
- •Service Operational Plan
- •Service Acceptance Criteria
- •Service Design & Topology
- •Organizational Readiness Assessment.
includes all of the functional requirements, resources and capabilities needed and agreed
Service Level Management
Goal: To ensure that the levels of IT service delivery are achieved,both for existing services and new services in accordance with the agreed targets.
Service Level Management is concerned with:
- o Designing and planning the SLM process and Service Level Agreement (SLA) Structure.
- o Determining the requirements of customers groups to produce Service Level Requirements (SLRs)
- o Negotiating and Agreeing upon the relevant Service Level targets with customers to produce Service Level Agreement so Negotiating and Agreeing upon the support elements required by the internal IT groups to produce Operational Level Agreements (internal) and with Supplier Mgt for External Suppliers and Underpinning Contracts (external).
- o Guarding Agreements with customer
- o Monitoring Service Levels
- o Reporting to Customer
NOTE- All reports from all other processes should go to SLM who will report back to customer
- Service Based SLA
- o Customer Based SLA
- o Multi-level Based SLA
- o Corporate level
- o Customer level
- o Service level
Points to note:
- o Agreements are INTERNAL
- o Contracts are EXTERNAL
- o You cannot have a legal contract/agreement with an internal department of you organization
- o If they try and mix the terms up (and they will)use the Internal/EXTERNAL as key word.
SLA: Service Level Agreement OLA: Operational Level Agreement UC: Underpinning Contract SC: Service Catalog SLR: Service Level Requirements
Service Improvement Plans (SIP):
formal plans to implement improvements to a process or service.Service Level Management works closely with Service Catalog Management and Supplier Management
Goal: To manage suppliers and the services they supply, to provide seamless quality of IT service to the business and ensure that value for money is obtained
Service Catalog Management
To ensure that a Service Catalogue is produced, maintained and contains accurate information on all operational services and those ready for deployment.18.1 Basic Concepts:
Creation and maintenance of Service Catalogue which
contains 2 parts:
- o Business Service Catalogue
- o Plain English using clear and concise language
- o Customer facing document
- o Technical Service Catalogue
- o Technical Language
- o Non Customer facing (designed for IT department use)
- Works closely with Service Level Manager
- Forms part of Service Portfolio
The goal of the Capacity Management process is to ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all areas of IT always exists and is matched to the current and future needs of the business, in a timely manner.
The scope of Capacity Management encompasses operational and development environments including ALL:- Hardware- Software- Peripherals- Scheduling of HR, Staffing level, skill levels and capability levels are included in scope of Capacity Management.
Capacity Management is about finding the right balance between resources and capabilities, and demand.
Sub Processes of Capacity Management
- o Business Capacity Management:
- o Manage Capacity to meet future business requirements for IT services
- o Service Capacity Management
- o Focus on managing ongoing service performance as detailed in SLA or SLR
- o Component Capacity Management
- o Identify and manage each of the components of the IT Infrastructure
Goal: To ensure that the level of service availability delivered in all services is matched to or exceeds the current
- Concerned with availability of services and components NOT PEOPLE.
- Proactive and Reactive elements to Availability Management
IT Service Continuity Management
Goal: To support the overall Business Continuity Management by ensuring that the required IT infrastructure and the IT service provision can be recovered within required and agreed business time scales.
Information Security Management
Goal: To align IT security with business security and ensure that information security is effectively managed in all service and IT Service Management activities.
Objective: The development and improvement of capabilities for transitioning new and changed services into operation.
- The focus here is developing the ability/capability for the It Department to transition (build, test and release) ANY service in a consistent and repeatable way. This will enable IT department to effectively manage MANY changes/transitions.The processes contained within Service Transition have this responsibility.
- The Service Design Manager would hand over the Service Design Package to the Service Transition Manager.
- Service Transition should be involved early in the design of services
Goal: To enable organizations to improve the quality of management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle.
The primary purpose is to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge. This requires accessible, quality and relevant data and information to be available to staff.
Data to Wisdom Graph:
Data Information Knowledge Wisdom
Service Knowledge Management System(SKMS)
- o SKMS contains:
- o CMS (Configuration Mgt System), which contains:
- o CMDB (Configuration Management Database)
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Goal: To support the agreed IT service provision by managing,controlling, storing and providing information about Configuration Items(CIs) and Service Assets throughout their life cycle.EXAM HINT - LOOK FOR KEY WORDS SUCH AS LOGICAL MODEL AND MAINTAINING ACCURATE RECORDS Analogy
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Scope: The scope covers interfaces to internal and external service providers where there are assets and configuration items that need to be controlled e.g. shared assets.
- Key activities:o Management and Planning
- o Identification
- o Status Accounting
- o Reporting
Configuration Item (CI):
ANY component that supports an IT service
Goal: To ensure that standardized methods and procedures a reused for efficient and prompt handling of all Changes, in order to minimize the impact of Change-related Incidents upon service quality,and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization
A change that follows all of the steps of the change process. It is assessed by either a Change Manager or Change Advisory Board.
A pre-approved Change that is low risk,relatively common and follows a procedure or work instruction.E.g. password reset or provision of standard equipment to anew employee. RFC are not required to implement a Standard Change, and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism, such as a service request
A change that must be introduced as soon as possible. E.g. to resolve a major incident or implement a security patch. The change management process will normally have a specific procedure for handling Emergency Changes.
Change Mgr chairs CAB, and other members, including External Suppliers when relevant and advise the Change Manager. Change Mgr makes the final decision.
The 7ls of Change Mgt are questions that must be answered to correctly assess the impact of the change and to assist in making informed decisions.
RFC: Request For Change:Standard form to capture and process ALL Changes to any CI
- Change Schedule:Schedule of Approved Changes and the planned implementation dates.
- PSO = Projected Service Outage:A document that identifies the effect of planned changes, maintenance activities and test plans on agreed service levels.
CAB = Change Advisory Board:Provide expert advice to Change Management, with representatives from Financial, IT background and customers
ECAB = Emergency CAB: Subgroup of CAB with authority to make urgent change decisions.
PIR: Post Implementation Review
Release and Deployment Management
To deploy releases into production and establish effective use ofthe service in order to deliver value to the customer and be able to handover to Service Operation.
- Responsible for Definitive Spares (DS) and Definitive Media Library (DML)
- Responsible for building, testing and releasing new/changed service
- Works closely with Change Management and Service Asset and Configuration Management
- Accountable to ensure that training of new service to Service Desk and users occur.
Release Identification examples:
o Major Release
o Minor Release
o Emergency Fix
Types of Releases:
- o Big Bang vs. Phased
- o Push vs. Pull
- o Manual vs. Automatic
A collection of authorized Changes to an IT Service. Also known as a Release Package
Definitive Media Library (DML)
The secure library in which the definitive authorized versions of all media CIs are stored and protected.The DML should include definitive copies of purchased software (along with license documents or information) as well as software developed on site.
Objective:To enable effectiveness and efficiency in delivery and support of IT services.
- Service Operation is where value is seen from the customer perspective
- Achieving The Balance
- balance is the key word here: look for that!!!
- o Internal IT view vs. External Business View
- o Stability vs. Responsiveness
- o Quality of Service vs. Cost of Service
- o Reactive vs. Proactive
Service Desk Function
Goal: To support the agreed IT service provision by ensuring the accessibility and availability of the IT-organization and by performing various supporting activities.
- The Service Desk is meant to the SINGLE POINT OF CONTACT for users.
- Remember users call Service Desk (if a question says a customer calls a service desk: think of them as a user)Service Desk is 1st line of support
Service Desk Organizational Structures
NOTE - a Help Desk is NOT a structure of a service desk!
- o Local Service Desk
- o Centralized Service Desk
- o Virtual Service Desk
- o Follow the sun
Self Help refers to any means where the user may assist themselves to seek support eg:
- o FAQ
- o Intranet forms/requests
- o Web based support Back end process handling software
- Calling Service Desk is NOT an example of Self Help!
Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, or may cause an interruption to, or a reduction in the quality of that service. A failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also classified as an incident.
Request for information or status of a service (not related to loss of service) Includes Standard Changes. E.g. Contact details, Service availability, request for common software.
Request for Change
Request to Move, Add, Change (MAC)E.g. Asking for changes to functionality of applications or supporting infrastructure not a pre-approved change.
Providing User or user groups rights to use a service,and the prevention of access to non-authorized users. Effectively the execution of both Availability and Information Security management, in that it enables the organization to manage CIA of the organization data and intellectual property.
Technical Management Function
Goal: Technical Management will provide guidance to IT Operations about how best to carry out the ongoing operational management of technology. This will partly be carried out during the Service Design phase but will be an everyday communication with IT Operations as they seek to achieve stability and optimum performance
- Technical Management simply refers to the teams/departments of IT support and design staff that manage/support/build/test the Hardware side of IT:
- o Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT Infrastructure.
- o Provides detailed technical skills and resources needed to support the ongoing operation of the IT Infrastructure
- o Plays an important role in providing the actual resources to support the IT Service Management life cycle.
- o Ensures resources are effectively trained and deployed to design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology to deliver and support IT Services.
IT Operations Management Function
Goal: To perform the daily operational activities needed to manage the IT Infrastructure. This is done according to the performance standards defined during Service Design.
- These are the teams that watch over the network on a daily basis to ensure that all is running well and doing the daily activities required to maintain the delivery and support of services.
- Sub Functions:
- o IT operations Control
- o Networks Operation Centre (NOC)
- o Facilities Management
- o Management of the physical IT environment, usually data centers or computer rooms
Application Management Function
Goal: Support Business processes by designing and supporting Application software to assist with service delivery
o Managing Applications throughout their lifecycle.
Goal: To enable stability in IT Services Delivery and Support by monitoring all events that occur throughout the IT infrastructure to allow for normal service operation and to detect and escalate exceptions
Event Management is about monitoring and escalating events which MAY HAVE SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE IT INFRASTRUCTURE.
NOT just exception events!
- Examples:o Disk reaching capacity
- o Successful backup
- o Backups failed
- o Print Outputs
a change of state that has significance for the management of a Configuration Item (including IT Services). This can be detected by technical staff or be automated alerts or notifications created by CI monitoring tools.
A warning that a threshold has been reached or something has been changed. (An event has occurred)
An indication that some action or response to an Event maybe needed.
Goal: To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained.
- Focus is on reducing business impact
- Priority Impact + Urgency
- o Functional (based on knowledge or expertise)
- o Hierarchical ( passing up due to timeliness or VIP)
Responsible for 1st, 2nd and 3rd line support groups
Incident Mgt Activities order:
Identification, Logging, Categorization, prioritization, Initial Diagnosis,Functional Escalation, Investigation, Diagnosis, Resolution, Recovery,Closure
- o Shorter time scales
- o Separate Procedure
- o High Impact and Urgency
An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service. Failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also an incident.:
A request by a user for information, advice or for a standard change or for access to an IT service (NOT AN INCIDENT).
Goal: To minimize the adverse impact of Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure,and to prevent the recurrence of Incidents related to these errors.
- o Reactive Problem Management
- o Detection/logging/investigation etc
- o Proactive Problem Management
- o Trend analysis
- o Major Problem Reviews
- o Targeting Preventive action
Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents (The investigation)
One or more incidents with the same characteristics can become a problem.
Known underlying cause. Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a Problem, and a workaround or permanent solution has been identified
KEDB: Known Error Database
A set of predefined steps to take as a means of reducing or eliminating the impact of an Incident or a Problem (e.g. restarting failed Configuration Item). Workarounds for Problems are documented with the Known Error records in the KEDB.
Goal: To provide an effective and efficient channel for users to make requests, gain information and obtain standard Services.
Carried out by the Service Desk Function, desktop support or other groups as required
A Service Request is:
- o A request for information or advice
- o A request for a standard change
- o A request for access to an IT Service
- o NOT related to a loss of service (ie incident
- )o NOT a normal change
Goal: To grant authorized users the right to use a Service while preventing access to non-authorized users in order to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of information and infrastructure.
- Relationship with other Processes:
- Access Management is the execution of policies and actions defined in Information Security and Availability Management.
- Activities:Verification, providing rights, Monitoring identity status Logging and Tracking access, Removing or restricting rights
Continual Service Improvement
Objective: To ensure continual improvements to IT Service Management Processes and IT Services.
CSI provides guidance in creating and maintaining value for your customers through better design implementation and support of services
- o 6 steps (ok this is corny but think six; model sexy model - to discern from 7 step improvement process)
- o What is the vision? business objectives
- o Where are we now? baseline assessment so Where do we want to be? Targets
- o How do we get there? Process Improvement
- o Did we get there? Measurements and metrics
- o How do we keep the momentum going (last step!!!!) Deming Cycle (remember Deming.DO DD
- o Plan - Scope, requirements, objectives, Roles and Responsibilities
- o Do - Funds, Policies, reports, managing, changing
- o Check - Monitor against plans, survey, report
- o Act Policy on improvement, assess, implement
- o Never stops cyclic as many times as required
Service Measurement and Reporting
Goal: To coordinate the design of metrics, data collection and reporting activities from the other processes and functions.
There are four reasons why it is important to measure and report:
- To validate that we are supporting the strategy and vision.
- o To justify actions/expenses/measures taken or applied.
- o To direct resources (time & money) in the most appropriate way.
- o To intervene when necessary. (e.g. to avoid breaching SLAs)
A benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison.
Often associated with component and application-based metrics such as performance, availability etc System architects/designers
Captured in the form of KPIs and activity metrics for the service management processes. They help to determine the overall health of a process. Four key questions KPIs can help answer are centered around quality, performance, value and compliance. CSI uses these metrics to identify improvement opportunities for each process. Process Owner
The results of the end-to-end service. Component metrics are use to calculate the service metrics. - SLM
Continual Service Improvement Process
(aka 7 Step Improvement Process)
Goal: To coordinate a structured approach
- Step Improvement Process
- o Define what we should measure
- o Define what we can measure
- o Gather data
- o Process data
- o Analyze data
- o Present information
- o Implement corrective action