biolab140.txt

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
134498
Filename:
biolab140.txt
Updated:
2012-02-13 12:07:00
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cardiovascular physiology
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cardiovascular physiology
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  1. The minimum arterial blood pressure during ventricular relaxation is called:


    mean arterial pressure
    diastolic pressure
    hydrostatic pressure
    pulse pressure
    systolic pressure
    diastolic pressure
  2. Which of the following arteries is most commonly used to measure blood pressure?
    dorsal pedal a.
    radial a.
    common carotid a.
    brachial a.
    femoral a.
    brachial a.
  3. Heart rate (HR) x Stroke volume (SV) = _________.

    End diastolic volume (EDV)
    Cardiac output (CO)
    Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
    Pulse pressure (PP)
    Total peripheral resistance (TPR)
    cardiac output (CO)
  4. Mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + 1/3_________.

    systolic pressure
    stroke volume
    cardiac output
    heart rate
    pulse pressure
    pulse pressure
  5. When blood pressure increases, the baroreceptor firing rate _________.

    increases
    decreases
    is unaffected
    increases
  6. During which two phases of the cardiac cycle are all heart valves closed?

    isovolumetric contraction and isovolumetric relaxation
    ventricular filling and ventricular ejection
    ventricular ejection and isovolumetric relaxation
    ventricular filling and isovolumetric contraction
    isovolumetric contraction and isovolumetric relaxation
  7. When blood pressure in the right ventricle is > pulmonary arteries, the semilunar valves are open.

    True
    False
    true
  8. Ventricular depolarization is represented by the ______ on an ECG.

    T wave
    H band
    P wave
    M line
    QRS wave
    QRS wave
  9. list the definition/descripition, units, and how to calculate cardiac output:
    • description: the amount of blood ejected by each ventricule in 1 minute
    • units: mL/min
    • calculate: HR (beats/min) X SV (mL/beat) = CO (mL/min)
  10. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate stroke volume:
    • description: ventricles do not expell all (130 mL) at EDV, the actual amount ejected (about 70 mL) is the stroke volume
    • units: mL (mL/beat)
    • calculate: EDS - ESV = SV
  11. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate pulse pressure:
    • description: the maximum stress exerted on small arteries by the pressure pressure surges generated by the heart, average pressure for the whole body
    • units: mm Hg
    • calculate: systolic P - diastolic P = pulse pressure
  12. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate mean aterial pressure:
    • description: a measure of stress on the blood vessels obtained at several intervals (say every 0.1 second) throughout the cardiac cycle
    • units: mm Hg
    • calculate: diastolic P + pulse P/3 = MAP
  13. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate systolic pressure:
    • description: peak arterial BP attained during ventricular contraction
    • units: mm Hg
    • calculate
  14. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate diastolic pressure:
    • description: the minimum arterial BP occuring during the ventricular relaxation between heartbeats
    • units: mm Hg
  15. list the definition/description, units, and how to calculate heart rate:
    • description: each beat of the heart produces a surge of pressure that can be felt by palpating a suerpficial artery with fingertips
    • units: BPM (beats per minute)
    • calculate: counting # of pulse for 15 seconds then multiply by 4 to get BMP

    *taken at radial artery or common carotid artery
  16. List at least 5 arteries of the body that lie close enough to the skin surfaces so that they can be used to take a pulse:
    • superficial temporal a.
    • facial a.
    • common carotid a.
    • radial a.
    • brachial a.
    • femoral a.
    • popliteal a.
    • posterior tibal a.
    • dorsal pedal a.
  17. what is the name of the instrument used to measure blood pressure:
    sphygmomanometer

    sphyg - mom an - o meter

    stethoscope
  18. what is the most commonly used artery to measure blood pressure?
    brachial artery
  19. if you have a blood pressure of 130/75, what does the 75 represent?
    diastolic pressure
  20. what is the clinical threshold for high blood pressure in young adults?
    140/90
  21. during the measurement of blood pressure, what is measured when the first sound is heard: systolic or diastolic pressure?
    systolic
  22. Calculate the pulse pressure and MAP under each condition:

    HR: 52 bmp
    systolic P: 102 mm Hg
    diastolic P: 52 mm Hg
    • pulse pressure: 50 mm Hg
    • MAP: 69 mm Hg
  23. Calculate the pulse pressure and MAP under each condition:
    HR: 56 bpm
    systolic P: 114 mm Hg
    diastolic P: 58mm Hg
    • pulse P: 56 mm Hg
    • MAP: 77 mm Hg
  24. Calculate the pulse pressure and MAP under each condition:
    HR: 56 bmp
    systolic P: 106 mm Hg
    diastolic P: 56 mm Hg
    • pulse P: 50 mm Hg
    • MAP: 72 mm Hg
  25. Calculate the pulse pressure and MAP under each condition:

    HR: 92 bmp
    systolic P: 138 mm Hg
    diastolic P: 71 mm Hg
    • pulse P: 67 mm Hg
    • MAP: 93 mm Hg
  26. if your stroke volume was 70 mL/beat, while seated what would her cardiac output be with a heart rate of 60 BMP:
    CO = 60 beat/min X 70 ml/beat = 4200 mL/min

    or 4200 ml/min x 1L/1000 mL = 4.2 L/min
  27. describe how your labmates blood pressure and heart rate changed in response to body position( lying down - sitting- standing):
    • lying down: after lying down for 3 mins the BP and HR lowered
    • sitting: immediately after sitting up from lying, the BP and HR elevated
    • standing: after standing for 2 mins the BP and HR lowered slightly from the resting measurements
  28. outline the physiologicial mechanism underlyng the change in heart rate and blood pressure in response to body postion ( ie, how did changes in baroreceptor firing, sympathetic activity, parasympathetic activity, and vasomotor tone contribute to HR and BP)
    • lying: BP to brain - decrease > decrease carotid sinus stretch > baroreceptor firing - decrease > SNS - increase (to stimulate a higher BP)/ PSNS - decrease > (2 pathways) 1. > Heart rate - increase > Cardiac output - increase
    • 2. > vasoconstrict (more resistance to elevate BP) > TPR - increase * both lead to increase in BP*
  29. Describe how you labmates blood pressure and heart rate changed in respone to excercise:
    • increase in BP
    • increase in HR
  30. Outline the physiological mechanism underlying the change in heart rate and blood pressure in response to excerise:
    • excerise > SNS - increase/ PSNS- decrease > heart rate - increase (response to SNS)> cardiac output - increase > MABP - increase
    • >vasoconstrict (to general organs/maintance, response to PSNS) > venous return - increase > EDS - increase
    • > vasodialate (to skeletal muscles, response to PSNS)
  31. name the 1st phase of the mechanical cycle of the heart, indicate which heart valves are open and closed during each phase, and state whether each phase is part of systole or diastole:

    Name:
    AV valves (open/closed)
    SL valves (open/closed)
    diastole/systole
    • Name: ventricular filling
    • AV valves: open
    • SL valves: closed
    • diastole
  32. name the 2nd phase of the mechanical cycle of the heart, indicate which heart valves are open and closed during each phase, and state whether each phase is part of systole or diastole:
    • Name: isovolumetric contraction
    • AV valves: closed
    • SL valves: closed
    • systole
  33. name the 3rd phase of the mechanical cycle of the heart, indicate which heart valves are open and closed during each phase, and state whether each phase is part of systole or diastole:
    • Name: ventricular ejection
    • AV valves: closed
    • SL valves: open
    • systole
  34. name the 4th phase of the mechanical cycle of the heart, indicate which heart valves are open and closed during each phase, and state whether each phase is part of systole or diastole:
    • name: isovolumeteric relaxation
    • AV valves: closed
    • SL valves: closed
    • diastole
  35. which heart sound is produced when the semilunar valves in the heart close?
    dub (S2)
  36. which heart sound is produced when the atrioventricular valves in the heart close?
    lub (S1)
  37. when blood pressure in the artria is > ventricles, are the AV valves open or closed?
    open
  38. when the blood pressure in the artria is < ventricles, are the AV valves open or closed?
    closed
  39. when blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries is < the right ventricle, are the SL valves open or closed
    closed
  40. when the pressure in the aorta is > the left ventricle, are the SL valves open or closed?
    open
  41. during which phase of the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart the highest?
    ventricular ejection
  42. during which phase of the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart lowest?
  43. what electricla event is represented by the P wave:
    atrial depolarization
  44. what electrial even is represented by the QRS wave:
    ventricular depolarization
  45. what electrical event is represented by the T wave
    ventricular repolarization
  46. why is atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG?
    it is obsured by QRS wave
  47. during which phase of the cardiac cycle does artrial contraction take place?
    ventricular filling

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