Life Span

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Author:
Kimberly
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134519
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Life Span
Updated:
2012-02-13 23:50:31
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Life Span Midterm
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Chapter 2
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  1. Studying for a test because it reduces your fear of failing is an example of
    negative reinforcement
  2. Erikson's theory divides personal development into _______ stages
    eight
  3. People are more likely to have higher self-esteem, more likely to attempt difficult tasks, and to successfully pick up the pieces of their lives after experiencing calamitous events if they have ______ self-efficacy expectations
    high
  4. In ______ an organism learns to engage in a certain behavior because of the consequences of that behavior
    operant conditioning
  5. The term "neuroticism" refers to
    emotional instability
  6. Freud aroused controversy in his day by arguing for the importance of _______ motivation, even among children
    sexual
  7. According to Freud, the psychic structure that might best represent the rational, planful, thinking "adult" in you would be the
    the id
  8. Which psychologist originated the concept of a "needs hierarchy"
    Abraham Maslow
  9. For Erikson, one's sense of who one is and what one stands for is known as
    ego identity
  10. Although born Jewish, Freud proclaimed himself to be
    an atheist
  11. Freud believed that the vast majority of the human mind is in the
    unconscious
  12. Barbara has a pattern of being very clingy and overly dependent in her friendship and romantic relationships. Freud would argue that she is fixed in the _____ stage of development
    oral
  13. According to Freud, our conscience lies in the
    superego
  14. The scientist noted for his work in operant conditioning is
    B F Skinner
  15. Freud saw himself as
    an outsider
  16. For Freud, the goal of adolescence is the attainment of
    genital sexuality
  17. ______ theory perspectives have arguably had a larger influence on modern psychology than any other set of theories
    Learning
  18. For Freud, the struggle between biological drives and social rules was most fierce in the
    unconscious
  19. In the "Little Albert" study, fear of the rat was
    the conditioned response
  20. According to Freud, during the first year of life, infants experience the _____ stage of development
    oral
  21. _____ is the reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another
    Personality
  22. Beliefs that we can accomplish certain things, such as speaking before a group or solving a math problem, are _____
    self-efficacy expectations
  23. A man justified raping a woman by claiming she was dressed provocatively. This is an example of
    projection
  24. In social-cognitive theory, the process of learning new behaviors by imitating the behavior of others is called
    modeling
  25. Reinforcers that increase the frequency of a behavior when they are REMOVED are called _______ reinforcers
    negative
  26. Classical conditioning usually conditions _____ responses. Operant conditioning usually conditions _____ responses
    involuntary, voluntary
  27. According to learning theorists _______ is the preferable method of teaching young children new behavior
    positive reinforcement
  28. According to Freud, the ego operates under the _______ principle
    reality
  29. For Freud, psychosexual maturation involves
    the expression of libido through intercourse within the context of marriage
  30. A student forgets that he has an important, but difficult text that day in his psychology class. This is an example of
    repression
  31. In the "Little Albert" study, the rat was
    the conditioned stimulus
  32. Freud was trained as
    a physician
  33. Jung believed that we inherit primitive images that reflect the history of our species called the ______ unconscious
    collective
  34. Of the following groups of Americans, ______ show the most indivdualist cultural orientation
    White Americans of European background
  35. Learning that occurs through repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus to a response eliciting stimulus is called
    classical conditioning
  36. According to Freud, the desire to avoid thinking about unpleasant or anxiety-evoking thoughts is called
    resistance
  37. The TAT is an example of a(n) ______ test
    Projective
  38. Rachel is 4 years old. She has developed a strong sense of attachment toward her father and sees her mother as a rival for her father's affection. According to Freud, she is experience the _________ complex
    Electra
  39. Maintaining a strong ethnic identification is linked to better psychological health among
    both immigrant and ethnic majority groups
  40. Refusal to accept the true nature of a threat is
    denial
  41. Adler believed that a central motivating force in the development of personality is a(n)
    inferiority complex
  42. The process of blaming others for your own unacceptable impulses or claiming that others harbor those impluses is
    projection
  43. According to Freud, the ONLY psychic structure that is present at birth is
    the id
  44. A man who is scolded by his boss and then yells at the employees who work for him rather than the boss who upset him in the first place is using the defense mechanism of
    displacement
  45. A person from ______ is MOST likely to be an individualist
    northern Europe
  46. According to John Watson, the environment ____ a person's behavior
    completely determines
  47. The psychodynamic theory emphasizing the collective unconscious and archetypes is
    analytical psychology
  48. Freud ______
    smoked 20 cigars a day
  49. A woman who is frustrated at work comes home and kills her family. This is an extreme example of
    displacement
  50. According to Freud, the superego is
    the moral guardian of personality

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