EE Bio

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EE Bio
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  1. Ancient Pacific Islanders
    • - had detailed knowledge of marine life
    • -used clues such as wind, wave, and current patterns to navigate
  2. Phoenicians
    • -The first accomplished western navigators
    • - by 2000 B.C they were sailing around the mediterranean sea, black sea, atlantic ocean
  3. ancient greeks
    • -Had considerable knowledge of nearshore organisms in te mediterranean
    • -Greek plates with marine organisms on them
    • -Electrical stimulation therapy form an electrical ray
  4. who is considered to be the first marine biologist?
    • aristotle
    • -described many forms of marine life
    • -recognized that gills are the breathing apparatus of fish
  5. James Cook
    • 1. Arctic to Antarctic
    • 2. Alaska toAustralia
    • 3. naturalist
    • 4. chronometer: determine longitude
  6. Darwin
    • -Sailed around the world on the HMS beagle
    • -Explained the formation of distinctive rings on coral reefs called atolls
    • -Captured plankton, barnacles
    • -natural selction and evolution
  7. Wilkes expedition
    • -US government funded
    • - 10,000 biological specimens
  8. Edward Forbes
    • -discovered many unknown organisms
    • -recognized that sea floor varies at different depths
    • -inspired the Challenger expedition
  9. HMS Challenger Expedition
    • -British navy suppled a light warship
    • -brought back themost information that had ever been recorded in previous history
    • -laid foundations of modern marine science
  10. The first major american marine laboratory
    Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  11. Sonar
    • Sound navigation ranging
    • -developed in WWII in reponse to submarine warfare
    • -detection of underwater echoes
  12. Modern Marine Biology
    • 1. Scuba
    • 2. Research vessels
    • 3. Remote sensing technology
    • 4. Robots
    • 5.Critter cams
  13. Scientific Method
    • 1. Observations
    • 2. Questions
    • 3. Testable Hypotheses
    • 4. Experiments
    • 5. Analysis of Results
  14. Theory
    • explanation supported by reasearch and evidence
    • -still subject to revision
  15. Anatomy of the Earth
    • Crust: outermost, extremely thin
    • 1. Lithosphere
    • -brittle
    • -oceanic(basalt) and continental (granite) plates
    • 2. Mantle
    • -Upper: Asthenosphere
    • -Lower
    • 3.Core
    • -Hot
    • -Iron/nickel
    • -Outer: molten mateiral
    • -Inner: solid
  16. Mid-ocean ridge
    continous, submarine range of volcanic mountains that runs through all ocean basins
  17. How is the surface of changing?
    • 1. Seafloor Spreading
    • New ocean floor is made at the ridge center and becomes progressively older moving away from the ridge.
    • 2. Erosion/weathering
    • 3.Volcanoes
    • 4.Earthquakes
  18. What forces are driving these changes? (seafloor)
    • Cooling oceanic plate(Slab pull) and Convection currents
    • -molten material rises from the mantle, spreads the plates apart -cools and spreads, pulls the plate along with it
    • -eventually sinks back down and destroyed at trenches
  19. How do these changes affect the oceans and organisms that live there?
    • 1. Define, Create, Destroy marine habitats
    • 2. Influences biodiversity: Speciation
  20. Evidence for plate tectonics
    • 1. Puzzle pieces
    • 2. Volcanoes and earthquakes
    • 3.Fossil and coal deposits
    • 4. Magnetism
  21. The sea floor is divided into two main regions
    • 1. The continental margins: submerged edges of the continents
    • -boundaries between continental crust and oceanic crust
    • 2. Deep-sea floor
  22. Hydrothermal vents
    • – Cracks and crevices in lithosphere
    • – Seawater seeps down and is heatedby mantle (up to350C, 660F
    • – Dissolves minerals(sulfides)
    • – Rises forming “blacksmokers” or deep sea hot springs
  23. Black smokers
    chimney-like structures that progressively build up around a vent as minerals solidify
  24. When did the earth form?
    4.6 billions years ago
  25. when did liquid water appear?
    4.3 billion years ago
  26. first forms of life appeared
    • 3 billion years ago
    • -single-celled organism
  27. Multicelled creatures appear
    1 billion years ago
  28. Vertebrates appear about
    500 millions years ago
  29. land plants appear about
    400 million years ago
  30. human beings appear
    2-4 milion years ago
  31. Oxygen appear
    2 billion years ago
  32. modern human(homo sapiens) appear
    500,000 years ago
  33. Plate boundaries
    • 1.Convergent
    • 2.Divergent
    • 3.Transform
  34. Transform boundary
    • ex. san andreas fault
    • - fault between offset segments of a spreading ridge
    • -move horizontally in opposite directions
    • -shear boundary
  35. Convergent Plate boundaries
    • • Lithospheric plates move toward each other
    • • Higher density oceanic crust overridden by low density continental crust
    • • Subduction zone forms and produces a trench
    • •Subduction of older oceanic crust balances the spreading seafloor equation
    • • Subduction zones are active geologic places
    • oVolcanism
    • oEarthquakes
    • oIsland arc formation
  36. Divergent Plate boundaries
    • – Lithospheric plates move apart; form oceanic ridges
    • – Upwelling of asthenosphere injects magma forming oceanic ridges and new oceanic crust
    • – New oceanic crust cools through Curie Point and takes on present magnetic field direction
  37. Convergence: Subduction Zones
    • 1.Oceanic-continental
    • • Trench formation
    • • Earthquakes, volcanic ridges
    • • Hydrothermal vents
    • • Oceanic crust destroyed
    • 2.Oceanic-oceanic
    • • Trench formation
    • • Earthquakes, volcanic islands
    • 3.Continental-continental
    • • Mountain formation
  38. lithogenous sediment
    weathering
  39. Biogenous sediment
    • Marine organisms
    • • Calcareous (foraminiferans, coccolithophorids, shells)
    • • Siliceous (diatoms, radiolarians, sponge spicules)
  40. Microfossils
    • 1.climate (species, Mg:Ca, Sr:Ca),
    • 2. ageing (carbon dating)
    • 3. ancient atmosphere(bubbles in sea ice)
  41. Why is water so special?
    • Only substance naturally occurring in all 3 states on Earth
    • • High heat capacity
    • – Highest of all common liquids and solids
    • • Incredible solvent
    • – Dissolves more substances than any other common liquid
    • • High heat of vaporization
    • – Highest of common liquids
    • • High Surface tension
  42. Water as a Solvent
    Water molecules surround ions causing dissociation
  43. Sea water becomes_____as it cools, until it freezes, it becomes ____
    Sea water becomes denser as it cools, until it freezes, it becomes less dense
  44. Sources of salts in Sea water
    • 1. Weathering
    • 2. Hydrothermal vents
    • 3. 85% NaCl
  45. Salinity
    Grams of salt per 1000 grams of evaporated seawater
  46. How do variations in salinity affect living organisms?
    • -Most marine organisms die in fresh water
    • -organism evolved specific mechanisms
  47. The average salinity of the ocean is
    35%
  48. Important gases used and produced by living things are dissolved in seawater?
    • 1. Oxygen
    • 2. carbon dioxide
    • 3. Nitrogen
  49. Important nutrients used and produced by living things are dissolved in seawater?
    • 1. Nitrogen
    • 2. Phosphorus
    • 3. Iron
  50. What causes salinity to fluctuate?
    • 1. Precipitation-evaporation ratio
    • 2. Freshwater loss: Increases salinity
    • -Evaporation
    • -Freezing
    • Freshwater Input: Decreases salinity
    • -Precipitation
    • -Glacial melt
    • 3. Weather
    • 4. Seasons
    • 5. Climate
    • 6. Currents
  51. How do temperature and salinity influence density?
    • Colder=denser
    • Saltier=denser
  52. How does temperature vary throughout the ocean?
    • Open ocean: 28F to 86F (-2C to 30C)
    • -Ocean is less prone to freezing because salt water freezes at colder temperature than pure water
    • • Salt decreases freezing temperature,increases boiling temperature
    • -Gets colder with depth
    • -exception: hydrothermal vents
  53. Estuaries
    large fluctuations in salinity
  54. What drives the movement of water throughout the world ocean?
    • Surface: Wind(Sun)
    • Deep: Density driven(Thermohaline Circulation)
  55. How does pressure change with depth?
    Pressure increases with depth because the amount of water above gets greater
  56. Doldrums
    Region near equator of light and variable winds
  57. Trade winds
    • approach the equator of about 45o
    • -steadiest winds on earth
  58. Coriolis effect
    curve due to rotating sphere deflects winds and currents to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
  59. Westerlies
    • -lie at middle latitudes
    • -move in opposite direction of trade winds
  60. Polar easterlies
    • -Most variable of all winds
    • -high latitude
  61. Ekman spiral
    Each layer pushes lower layer at additional angle with less speed
  62. Gyres
    Large circular systems formed when currents combine
  63. Waves
    • • Caused by winds
    • • Carry energy but do not transport water
  64. Fetch
    the span of open water over which the wind blows
  65. Size of wave depends on
    fetch
  66. Waves apporach shore
    • – Elliptical water particle motion
    • – Decrease speed
    • – Wavelength decreases, height increases
    • – Break when too tall
  67. 100+ ships lost at sea every year
    – Reinforcement: “rogue waves”
  68. Tides
    • Rhthmic pattern of rising and falling sea surface
    • - Casued by Gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the Earth and rotations of the earth and moon
  69. when does high/low tide occur
    • High: Bulge of water toward moon
    • Low: Bulge away from moon
    • -Earth rotates resulting in high and low tides
    • New and Full Moon: Sun and Moon are in line
    • -largest tidal bulge
  70. What wavelengths of light travel farthest in seawater?
    • Blue: Longest
    • Red: the shortest
  71. what are some ways living things influenced by tides?
    • Ex.Grunion
    • – Come on shore with highest high tides
    • – Females dig hole and layeggs
    • – Males curl around females to fertilize
    • – Eggs hatch with return of high spring tides
    • The intertidal zone is exposed at low tide and covered at high tide
  72. Why are certain areas of the ocean more productive (more living things) than other regions?
    • • Photosynthesis:
    • -Photic zone: upper 200m
    • • No sunlight penetrates beyond 1,000m
    • -less productivity
  73. How does pressure affect organisms?
    • As pressure increases----gas-filled structured are compressed which could kill you. Lungs could collapse
    • -Or if taken to areas with less pressure, Ex. Longfin Grouper,then swim bladder could expand and explode
  74. What are the different habitats found in the ocean?
    What sorts of challenges do living things face in these different habitats?
    • 1. Intertidal Zone
    • - This zone is covered with water at high tide, and exposed to air at low tide.
    • -Must be able to retain moisture and protect from sunlight burn
    • -Waves: Kelps has holdfast
    • 2. Coral Reefs
    • -sensitive to climate change
    • 3. Pelagic Zone(Open Ocean)
    • 4. Deep ocean
    • -hard to find mates:Use sense of smell
    • -cold, dark, strong pressure
  75. Levels of Organization
    • 1. Ecosystem
    • 2. Community
    • 3. Population
    • 4. Individual
    • 5. Organ
    • 6. Tissue
    • 7. Cell
    • 8. Organelle
    • 9. Molecule
    • 10. Atom
  76. Characteristics of Living Things
    • • Organization: Cellular composition
    • • Use energy (Metabolism)
    • • Maintain homeostasis
    • • Ability to sense and react to environment
    • • Growth
    • • Reproduction → capacity to evolve
  77. Building blocks of life:
    • • Carbon
    • • Hydrogen
    • • Oxygen
  78. how are building blocks used by living things?
    Energy storage and release
  79. Organic molecules
    • • Carbohydrates
    • • Lipids
    • • Proteins
    • • Nucleic Acids (Genetic Information)
  80. Carbohydrates
    • • Simple sugars- metabolism
    • – Glucose (C6H12O6)
    • • Complex carbohydrates- energy storage
    • – Starches
    • – Chitin- exoskeletons
    • – Cellulose- plant cell walls
  81. Lipids
    • • Glycerol and Fatty acids
    • • Fats, oils, waxes
    • – Cell membranes
    • – Energy storage
    • – Insulation
    • – Waterproofing
    • – Buoyancy
    • – Hormones
  82. Proteins
    • • Amino acids
    • – C,H,O + Nitrogen
    • – Essential Amino Acids
    • – Structure
    • – Enzymes
    • – Hormones
  83. Nucleic Acids
    • • Nucleotides
    • – C,H,O,N + Phosphorus
    • – 4 nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, Guanine
    • • DNA
    • • RNA– Uracil
  84. • Prokaryotic cells:Bacteria
    • • No nucleus and few organelles
    • • Cell wall and cellmembrane
    • • Circular DNA
    • • Some are autotrophic
    • • Some are motile
    • • Unicellular
  85. • Eukaryotic cells:
    • • Complex organelles
    • ie. Nucleus,Mitochondria
    • • Chromosomes
    • • Unicellular ormulticellular
  86. • Animal cells
    • – Cell membrane only
    • – No chloroplasts
    • – Small vacuoles
  87. Plant cells
    • – Cell wall (and cell membrane)
    • – Chloroplasts (chlorophyll)
    • – Central vacuole
  88. Homeostasis
    • • Maintain stable internal conditions
    • – Water content
    • – Salt/nutrient content
    • – Temperature
    • – Pressure
    • • Requires energy (ATP)
  89. Ectotherms
    • - Body heat matches external temperature
    • - most heat is lost to environment
  90. Endotherms
    • Retain significant metabolic heat
    • -internal temperature stays warmer than external
  91. Poikilotherms
    Temperature varies with external temperature
  92. Homeotherms
    Regulate body temperature so it doesnt vary as much as external temperature
  93. How do cells replicate themselves or produce gametes?
    • 1.Asexual
    • • Identical copies of parent cell
    • – Fission, budding
    • 2. Sexual
    • • Combination of genetic information from 2 parents
    • – Production of haploid gametes through meiosis
    • – Fertilization forms a genetically unique zygote
    • 3. Bacteria
    • - Binary Fission: asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two
  94. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water
    • - Across a semi-permeable membrane
  95. Osmoconformer:
    • • Conforms internal concentration to salinity of environment
    • – Will gain or loose water when conditions change
  96. Osmoregulator:
    • Maintains constant internal water/solute level regardless of environment
    • – Requires energy
  97. Osmoregulation
    • In seawater:
    • • Water leaves the body, must excrete salts
    • In freshwater:
    • • Water enters the body, must absorb salts
  98. Osmoregulation mechanisms:
    • – Kidneys: excretory system
    • – Salt glands
    • – Alter blood chemistry (urea) ionoregulation
  99. • Broadcast spawning
    – Millions of gametes released
  100. How does reproduction facilitate evolution?
    • • The best adapted individuals produce more offspring
    • -Evolution: change over time
    • -Mutation, Divergence &Natural selection
  101. How do we classify living organisms?
    • Taxonomy
    • 1. Genus: group of very similar species
    • 2. species

    Ex. Homo sapiens
  102. Why are phylogenetic trees (cladograms) useful?
    • -find out relatedness
    • -share a common ancestor/trait
  103. What are the major groups of marine microbes?
    • 1. Viruses
    • 2. Prokaryotes (bacteria, archea)
    • 3. Eurkaryotes
  104. What are the major groups of algae?
  105. What are the major groups of plants?
  106. Viruses
    • -No cellular structure
    • - not alive
    • - Reproduce only byinfecting a living cell
    • –Small amount ofgenetic material
    • • Create dissolved organic matter(DOM)
    • - when viruses infect bacteria, organic matter burst out
  107. Prokaryota:
    • • Oldest and simplest forms of life on Earth
    • • Two domains:
    • – Bacteria
    • – Archaea
    • • Shapes
    • – Spheres
    • – Spirals
    • – Rods
    • – rings
    • • Size
    • – Most microscopic
  108. Bacteria
    • Structurally simple
    • • Genetically distant from archaea and eurkaryotes
    • • Break down oil
    • • Base of food web
  109. Decay bacteria
    Break down waste products and dead organic matter and recycle nutrients into the environments
  110. • Types of symbiotic relationships:
    • – Parasitism
    • – Commensalism
    • – Mutualism ☺☺
  111. Cyanobacteria
    • • “Blue-green algae” (photosynthetic bacteria)
    • • Chlorophyll a and phycocyanin(blue) and phycoerythrin(red)
    • • Formed stromatolites(calcareous mounds) 3 billion years ago
    • • Accumulation of oxygen in atmosphere
  112. Epiphytes
    Photosynthetic organisms that live on algae or plants
  113. Endophytes
    Organisms that live inside algae
  114. Archea
    • • Similar to 3.8 billion year old fossils
    • • Evolution of life, eukaryotes
    • • Thought to be bacteria until late 70s
    • – as different as both are from us!
    • • Extremophiles
    • – deep, hot, acidic, alkaline, saline
    • • Also in mild environments
    • – water column, sediments,symbiotic
    • • Like bacteria can be spherical,spiral or rod-shaped
  115. Prokaryota:Reproduction
    • – Asexual
    • – Horizontal transfer
    • Ex. resistance
  116. Protista
    • -Eukaryotic
    • -diverse evolutionary histories
    • • Unicellular or multicellular
    • • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic
    • • Example: Diatoms & Dinoflagellates
  117. • Unicellular Algae
    • – Autotrophic primary producers
    • – Chloroplasts containing chlorophyll and other pigments
    • – Planktonic, motile, sessile, symbiotic
  118. Diatoms
    • – Frustule(glassy shell): Silica (SiO2)
    • – Carotenoid pigments + chlorphyll a,c
    • – Most planktonic, may aggregate
    • – Temperate and polar regions
    • – Autotrophic (few heterotrophic): Major primary producers
  119. Diatom reproduction:
    – Asexual or sexual
  120. Diatomaceous Earth
    • – Siliceous ooze
    • – Mined for:
    • -Filters (pool, beer, sugar, syrup, oil)
    • -Insulators (temp, sound)
  121. Dinoflagellates
    • – 2 flagella for omnidirectional movement
    • – Cellulose plates
    • – Carotenoid pigments + chlorphyll a,c
    • – Eye spot
    • – Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic
    • – Warm water primary production
    • – Red tide blooms, some toxic or bioluminescent
  122. Silicoflagellates
    • -start shaped
    • – Silica, important primary producers
  123. Coccolithophorids
    • – Calcium carbonate coccoliths
    • – Major blooms and chalk deposits
  124. Cryptophytes
    • – Small,
    • -no skeleton,
    • -reduced symbiotic eukaryotic cell containing chloroplast
  125. Protozoa
    • -Anima-like protists
    • • Evolutionarily diverse group
    • • Most single celled (some colonial)
    • • Heterotrophic, some also autotrophic
  126. Foraminiferans
    • – Calcium carbonate shell(test), chambers
    • – Pseudopodia: capture food
    • – Feed on diatoms and other small planktonic organisms
    • – Planktonic, benthic (bottom) and free or attached
  127. Radiolarians
    • – Elaborate silica shells and pseudopodia
    • - Planktonic, shallow to deep
    • – Form deep water siliceous ooze, microfossils
    • - more resistant to dissolving
    • -Giants in protozoans
  128. Ciliates
    • – Cilia used for locomotion and feeding
    • - Highly complex single cells
    • – Live on algae, sediments, in animals (clam gills, sea urchin intestines,fish skin), or attached to substrate, some planktonic (ex. Tintinnids).
    • – Reproduce sexually and asexually
  129. Fungi
    • • Eukaryotic
    • • Mostly multicellular (except molds, yeast)
    • • Multicellular: hyphae filaments
    • • Contain cell walls
    • • Important decomposers,particularly of cellulose(plant material)
    • • Also break down oil and toxins
  130. Mutualistic: lichens(Fungi)
    • • Fungi + Cyanobacteria or green algae
    • • Hyphae provide support and protection, autotrophs provide food
    • • Live on/in rock, barnacle or limpet shells
    • • Potential source of antibacterial, antiviral, and antiprotozoal compounds
  131. Macroalgae
    • 1.Red (Rhodophyta)
    • 2.Brown (Phaeophyta)
    • 3.Green (Chlorophyta)
    • • Eukaryotic, diverse evolutionary histories
    • • Unicellular or multicellular
    • • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic
    • • Not true plants, no true leaves, stems, roots,specialized transport tissues
  132. Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
    • -the biggest of all algal species
    • Synthesize alginate – makes these seaweeds sticky and gooey
    • - Make use of chl a and c, cartenoids (including fucoxanthin)
  133. Green algae (Chlorophyta)
    • -Gave rise evolutionarily to terrestrial plants
    • -Contain the same photosynthetically active pigments, chl a and b,
    • -Like land plants, greens store starch and cellwalls are made of cellulose
    • - Useful as bioindicators of habitat degradation
  134. Red algae (Rhodophyta)
    • -Make use of chl a and phycobiliproteins(phycoerythrin, phycocyanin)
    • - Can live at deeper depths than other algae
    • - Calcium carbonate secretions by red algae contribute more to building tropical reefs
  135. Plantae
    • Surf grass and eel grass
    • • True leaves, stems, and roots
    • • Low intertidal and shallow water subtidal habitats
    • • Trap sediments, stabilize sandy substrates, source of food(urchins), shelter from wave exposure
  136. Animalia
    • • Eukaryotic
    • • Multicellular
    • • Heterotrophic
    • • Invertebrates vs. vertebrates
  137. Porifera: Sponges
    • • Organization: Cellular level
    • • Symmetry: None
    • • Aggregations of specialized cells withouttrue tissues
    • • Sessile, benthic
    • • Nearly all marine
    • • Filter feeders
  138. Cnidaria
    • • Organization: Tissue level
    • • Symmetry: Radial
    • • Centrally located mouth
    • • Tentacles with stinging cells (nematocysts)
    • • Filter feeders, algae symbionts, drifting predators
    • • Sessile (hydroid, anemone, coral) or mobile(jellies)
    • • Colonial or solitary• Nerve net, photoreceptors
  139. Basic body plans: Polyp
    • -Attached
    • -Mouth and tentacles away from substrate
  140. Basic body plans: Medusa
    • -Free swimming
    • -Tentacles away from direction ofswimming

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