BIO 112

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BIO 112
2012-02-22 23:46:44
Definitions 27 31

CH. 27-31
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  1. Plasmid:
    Single circular molecule of DNA independent of bacterial DNA (inside bacteria)
  2. Nucleoid:
    Region in bacterial containing single circular chromosome
  3. Phototroph:
    An Organism that obtains energy from light
  4. Chemotroph:
    An organism that obtains energy from chemicals
  5. Autotroph:
    An organism that requires CO² as carbon source
  6. Heterotroph:
    An organism that requires an organic nutrient as carbon source
  7. Obligate aerobe:
    Require O2 for cellular respiration
  8. Obligate anaerobe:
    Poisoned by O2, use fermentation or anaerobic respiration
  9. Facultative anaerobe:
    Survive with or without O2
  10. Extremophile:
    Archaea that live in extreme environments
  11. Halophile:
    Archaea that lives in high saline environments (salt lake)
  12. Thermophile: (heat-loving)
    Archaea that lives in very hot environments (geysers)
  13. Methanogen:
    Archaea that lives in swamps & marshes, produce methane as waste (anaerobes)
  14. Symbiosis:
    Relationship in which two species live in close contact: a larger host and smaller symbiont
  15. Mutualism:
    Form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit
  16. Commensalism:
    Form of symbiosis in which one organisms benefits while neither harming/helping other organism
  17. Parasitism:
    An organism (parasite) harms but usually does not kill its host
  18. Pathogen:
    A parasite that causes disease
  19. Exotoxin:
    Proteins release during growth or after lysis (cell death). Toxin can be present after bacteria die. (gram + & - )
  20. Endotoxin:
    Lipopolysaccharides on cell surface released only after lysis (gram -)
  21. What types of organisms are found in Domain Bacteria?
    Common bacteria
  22. What types of organisms are found in Domain Archaea?
    Archaic or ancient bacteria
  23. What are the three most common shapes of bacterial cells?
    Rod, spiral, spherical
  24. What is the function of the capsule that covers many bacterial cells?
    Protects bacterial from host’s immune system and allows bacterial to stick to each other/substrate
  25. What is the function of the fimbriae in bacteria?
    Allows bacteria to stick to each other or substrate
  26. What is the function of the sex pili in bacteria?
    The transfer or plasmids back and forth to each other
  27. Describe the structure of the bacterial chromosome.
    A single circular chromosome
  28. How do bacterial cells reproduce asexually?
    Binary fission
  29. How does an endospore form?
    Bacteria makes a copy of its chromosome and surrounds it by a tough cell wall
  30. What are the three main factors that contribute to genetic diversity in bacteria?
    (1) Transformation (2) Transduction (3) Conjugation
  31. Briefly describe the three methods by which bacteria undergo genetic recombination:
    • a. Transformation: Cell takes up foreign DNA from environment
    • b. Transduction: Movement of genes between bacteria via bacteriophages
    • (Virus that infect bacteria)
    • c. Conjugation: DNA transferred between bacteria via sex pili
  32. What important role do Rhizobium sp. play in an ecosystem (and in crop fields)?
    Converts nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) ( which plants absorb)
  33. What important role do Agrobacterium sp. play in crop plants?
    Creates tumors on plants
  34. What role do Agrobacterium play in genetic engineering?
    It is used to place the genetic material for desired traits into plant(s)
  35. What roles do nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria play in an ecosystem?
    • Nitrifying- convert ammonium into nitrites and nitrates
    • Denitrifying- convert nitrates to nitrogen
  36. List four diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria.
    (1)Syphilis (2) Chlamydia (3)Leprosy (4) Toxic shock syndrome
  37. Cite two ways in which bacteria are used in research and technology.
    (1)Bioremediation in the use of removing pollutions from environment (2) Creating synthetic plastic
  38. Protist:
    Any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal or fungus
  39. Photoautotroph:
    Organism that obtains nutrients from photosynthesis
  40. Heterotroph:
    Organism that absorbs organic molecules or ingests food particles
  41. Mixotroph:
    Organism that is phototrophic and heterotrophic
  42. Endosymbiosis:
    An organism that lives within another organism in a symbiotic relationship
  43. Pseudopodia:
    (false- foot) cytoplasmic extensions from a cell that enable it to move
  44. Algal “bloom”:
    Rapid reproduction of algae
  45. What characteristic(s) is/are common among organisms classified as “protists”?
    Eukaryotic organisms that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
  46. Name three protists found in each of the following categories:
    a. Parasitic protists:
    b. Fungal-like protists
    c. Animal-like protists:
    d. Plant-like protists:
    • a. Plasmodium (causes malaria)
    • b. Water molds
    • c. Radiolarians (marine protists)
    • d. Dinoflagellates (red tide causers)
  47. What organism formed the limestone deposits in existence today?
    The protists forams
  48. What organism is associated with the formation of flint (chert)?
  49. What organism is responsible for the formation of “red tides” when it “blooms”?
  50. What organism has silica-based cell walls and forms deposits of diatomaceous earth?
  51. Cite two uses of diatomaceous earth.
  52. (1) Filtering medium (2) paints
  53. Which algae most resemble land plants in body structure?
    Green algae
  54. From which group of protists did land plants evolve?
    Charolphyceans (algae)
  55. What role do photosynthetic protists play in aquatic ecosystems?
    They form the base of the food chain
  56. Sporopollenin:
    Polymer that covers pollen, spores, and zygote that prevents these from drying out
  57. Gametophyte:
    Haploid state of a plant exhibiting alternation of generation, generates gametes by mitosis
  58. Sporophyte:
    Diploid state of a plant exhibiting alternation of generation
  59. Sporangia:
    Multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells (spores in plants) develop
  60. Sporocyte:
    Dilpoid cells that undergo meiosis becoming haploid
  61. Gametangia:
    Multicellular organ where gametes are produced
  62. Archegonia:
    Female gametangia
  63. Antheridia:
    Male gametangia
  64. Apical meristem:
    Regions of actively dividing cells at tips of roots and stems
  65. Vascular tissue:
    Consists of Xylem and Phloem – xylem moves water & nutrients from roots to leaves, phloem moves products of photosynthesis from leaves to other regions of the organism
  66. Sporophyll:
    (phyll=leaf) Modified leaves with sporangia
  67. Sorus (Sori):
    Clusters of sporangia
  68. Strobilus (Strobili):
    Cone-like structures formed from groups of sporophills
  69. Homosporous:
    Bisexual gametophyte- produces both sperm and eggs
  70. Heterosporous:
    Gametophyte produces sperm or eggs
  71. Microspore:
    Male gametophyte- produces sperm
  72. Gymnosperm:
    non-flowering, seed bearing plants
  73. Angiosperm:
    Flowering plants
  74. Pollination:
    Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma by wind etc.
  75. Fertilization:
    Fusion of two gametes (sperm & ovum) to produce a zygote
  76. Endosperm:
    Food storage tissue, provides nutrients to embryo in angiosperms
  77. Cotyledon:
    Leaf-like structure in seeds of flowering plants
  78. Monocot:
    1 of two main groups of angiosperms, has one cotyledon
  79. Eudicot:
    1 of two main groups of angiosperms, has two cotyledons
  80. Basal angiosperms:
    Oldest, least derived angiosperms
  81. Magnoliids:
    Angiosperms more closely related to monocots and eudicots than basal angiosperms
  82. Fungi:
    Eukaryotic organism that absorb nutrients after decomposing organic material
  83. Decomposer:
    An organism that feeds on dead or decaying organisms
  84. Mycelium:
    The mass of interwoven filaments of hyphae in a fungus (body)
  85. Hyphae :
    Multicellular filaments that make up mycelium (body) of a fungus
  86. Haustoria:
    Specialized hyphae that allow fungus to penetrate it host
  87. Plasmogamy:
    Fusion of cytoplasm during sexual reproduction
  88. Karyogamy:
    Fusion of nuclei during sexual reproduction
  89. Mycosis:
    Fungal infection in animals
  90. What are the closest living relatives of land plants?
  91. Cite the four main advantages to ancestral charophytes that moved onto land.
    (1) Unfiltered sunlight (2) More co2 (3) Nutrient rich soil (4) Few herbivores & pathogens
  92. Cite the two main challenges facing ancestral charophytes that moved onto land.
    (1) Scarcity of water (2) Lac of structural support
  93. What are the four key (derived) traits that separate the land plants from all other groups (traits found in land plants but not found in their closest relatives, the charophytes)?
    (1) Alteration of generations (2) Walled spores produced in sporangia (3) Multicellular gametangia (4) Apical meristems
  94. Describe / understand the general ‘Alternation of Generations’ found in the life cycle of plants.
    Alteration between two multicellular stages: Gametophyte and Sporophyte . Diploid stage is followed by haploid stage etc.
  95. Know which stages during the ‘Alteration of Generations’ are haploid and which stages are diploid
    • Gametophyte= haploid
    • Sporophyte= diploid
  96. Where are apical meristems found, and what is their function?
    At tips of stems and/or roots. They allow for continual growth
  97. List three additional derived traits found in most land plants (but not found in charophytes).
    (1) Waxy cuticle (2) Mycorrhizae (3) Production of secondary compounds
  98. What function does a waxy cuticle serve in land plants?
    Coats surface of plant to prevent access water loss
  99. What functions do secondary compounds serve in land plants?
    Deter herbivores and kill fungal and bacterial spores
  100. Briefly describe the types of plants found in each of the following groups:
    a. Bryophytes:
    b. Seedless vascular plants:
    a. Bryophytes: non-vascular ex. Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
  101. b. Seedless vascular plants: Reproduce via spores ex. Ferns & fern allies
  102. Bryophytes and Vascular plants -
    which stage of the life cycle is dominant (gametophyte or sporophyte).
    Vascular plants=
    gametophyte dominate life cycle

    sporophyte dominate life cycle
  103. Bryophytes and vascular plants-

    Is the gametophyte free-living; or is the sporophyte free-living.
    Vascular plants=
    Bryophytes= Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte , not free living

    Vascular plants= free living
  104. Bryophytes and vascular plants-
    is water required for fertilization.
    • Bryophytes= yes
    • Vascular plants= yes
  105. Be familiar with the general life cycle of a moss.
    Spores, (female archegonia produces egg, male antheridia produces sperm), fertilization (2n zygote) meiosis (n spore) spores
  106. Of what economic importance are mosses?
  107. Peat-moss is widely used for various functions
  108. What advantage does vascular tissue provide to land plants?
    Allows them to grow taller, thus maximize sunlight
  109. What advantage do true roots provide to land plants?
    Anchorage along with water & nutrient absorption
  110. What advantage do true leaves provide to land plants?
    Increase surface area for greater efficiency during photosynthesis
  111. Be familiar with the general life cycle of a fern.
    Spores (bisexual gametophyte) Fertilization (2n zygote) meiosis, (n) spore
  112. What was the significance of the divergence of seedless vascular plants? (two main things we discussed in class)
    (1) Led to global cooling due to large amount of photosynthesis (2) Burning of dead plants from plant overpopulation led to global warming
  113. What are the three main parts of a seed?
    (1) Embryo (2) Nutritive tissue (3) Protective coat
  114. What are the four key evolutionary adaptations of seed plants?
    (1) Reduced gametophytes (2) Heterospores (3) Ovules (4) Pollen
  115. Why are reduced gametophytes, which are contained within tissues of the parent sporophyte, considered an evolutionary advantage?
    Extra protection for the gametophytes
  116. What evolutionary advantages do seeds provide over spores as a means of reproduction?
  117. (1) They can be dormant until environment is desirable (2) They can be transported longer distances (3) They allow for protection and nutrients for the embryo
  118. What evolutionary advantage does having sperm contained within pollen provide over flagellated sperm as a means of fertilization / reproduction?
    It does not require water for fertilization/reproduction
  119. What are the three parts of an ovule?
    (1) Megasporangium (2) Megaspore (3) 1 or more protective integuments
  120. What does a fertilized ovule develop into in gymnosperms (and in angiosperms)?
  121. Why are the seeds of gymnosperms considered “naked”?
    They are not enclosed by ovaries/fruits
  122. What makes up the female gametophyte in gymnosperms?
    2 or 3 archegonia ,each will form an egg
  123. What makes up the male gametophyte in gymnosperms?
  124. Be familiar with the general life cycle of a pine tree.
    Seed, seedling, mature sporophyte (2n ovulate cone & pollen cone) pollen cone, spores (2n)undergo meiosis, pollen grains (n) germination pollen grain. Ovulate cone, Ovule contains spore(2n,) germination. Meiosis (n), fertilization, embryo, seed.
  125. Be familiar with the types of plants classified as gymnosperms.
    • -Cycadophyta (cycads)
    • –Gingkophyta (Ginkgo biloba)
    • –Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia)
    • –Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood)
  126. What are the main evolutionary advantages of angiosperms over gymnosperms?
    Pollen on flowers can be transferred by animals. Fruits protect dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.
  127. What type of organs make up a flower (leaves?, stems? roots?)?
    Modified leaves- sepals, petals, stamens, carpels
  128. What is the function of each of the following parts of a flower?
    sepals: petals: stamens: (1) filament:
    (2) anther: carpels: (1) stigma: (2) style:
    (3) ovary:
    • a. sepals: Protect flowering bud
    • b. petals: Attract pollinators
    • c. stamens: Male reproductive organs
    • (1) filament: Stalk to anther
    • (2) anther: produces pollen
    • d. carpels: Female reproductive organs
    • (1) stigma: Where pollen lands
    • (2) style: Stalk from stigma to ovary
    • (3) ovary: contains 1 or more ovules
  129. Following fertilization, what does the ovary develop into in angiosperms?
  130. List two evolutionary advantages of fruits (over the production of “naked” seeds, as in gymnosperms).
    (1)Protects dormant seed (2) Aids in its dispersal
  131. List the three important evolutionary links between animals and angiosperms that we discussed in class.
    (1)Animals can carry spores/seeds on their fur (2) Animals can disperse seeds by storing the fruit to eat (3) Animal can disperse seeds through excrement
  132. List four resources provided to humans by seed plants (these do not have to be ones that we discussed in class).
    (1) Food (2) fuel (3) wood products (4) medicines
  133. How do fungi obtain nutrients?
    By decomposing organisms
  134. Why are fungi considered essential for the health of terrestrial ecosystems?
    They decompose organisms which provides nutrients for plants
  135. What are mycorrhizae and why are they considered important for the health of most terrestrial plants?
    Microrrhizae are fungi that live in a mutualistic relationship with a plant maximizing nutrient intake
  136. Describe the basic body structure of multicellular fungi.
    Cells walls made of chitin, mycelium (body), Hyphae (branches)
  137. As a group, how do fungi reproduce asexually?
  138. Describe the general life cycle of most multicellular fungi.
    • Sexual reproduction= spores, germination, mycelium, plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm), Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei), Meiosis, spores.
    • Asexual reproduction= spores, germination, mycelium, spores
  139. Are fungi more closely related to animals or plants?
  140. Single celled protists
    Single celled protists
  141. Cite two fungal pathogens / diseases of humans or other animals.
    (1) Ringworm (2) Athletes foot
  142. Cite two fungal pathogens of plants.
    (1)Ergots on rye (2) Corn smut (3) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves
  143. How are fungi beneficial to grazing animals?
    They break down cellulose in the gut of animals which otherwise would be unable to digest
  144. Briefly describe the mutualistic relationship between fungi and leaf-cutter ants.
    Ants bring leaves to fungi to decompose which the ants are able to then consume
  145. Cite three ways in which endophytes are beneficial to their host plant.
    (1) Makes toxins that deter herbivores (2) Fight off pathogens (kill harmful fungal and bacterial spores) (3) Increase tolerance to environmental stresses (cold, heat, drought)
  146. Cite three “practical” or “economically-important” uses of fungi.
    (1) Consuming (2) production of products (beer) (3) pharmaceuticals (penicillin)
  147. What organisms make up a lichen, and what does each organism contribute to the mutualistic relationship.
    Alga and fungus- alga photosynthesis making organic nutrients for itself and fungus. Fungus protects alga from excess UV radiation and absorbs water and nutrients for itself and the alga
  148. Describe the basic structure of a lichen (how the two organisms are “arranged” in the lichen).
    Alga is held by a mass of hyphae from the fungus
  149. Cite two ways that lichens can reproduce themselves asexually.
    (1)Fragmentation (2) formation of soredia
  150. Cite three ways lichens are important
    (1) Pioneers, first organisms to grow after death of all organisms(2) Pollution, their death can be a warning of pollution (3) Food, for reindeer and caribou
  151. Why are lichens usually the first organisms to colonize an area following a severe forest fire, a volcanic eruption, or the retreat of a glacier?
    They can penetrate surfaces by chemically attacking it