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What is the Anat/Phys of the Cardiovascular System?
- Regulated blood flow to the tissues to deliver Oxygen & Nutrients
- Retrieves waste products
- Gas Exchange
- Closed loop of blood vessels for which the heart acts as two pumps
What are the three layers of the heart?
What do the left/right sides of your heart do?
- Left: Pumps blood with its oxygen load throughout the body
- Right: Pumps blood through the LUNGS pulmonary circulation to pick up oxygen
What is Hypertension?
- Chronic elevation of BO
- >140/90 mmHg
- Increases risk of CHF, kidney failure, MI, stroke, aneurysms, vision probs
What is an Aneurysm?
Weak area that bulges out/abnormality
What is the difference between systolic and dylostolic?
- Systolic: Heart Contraction
- Diastolic: Heart Relaxation
What is the etiology of Hypertension?
- Idiopathic (90%)
- Secondary- Result of another chronic condition (renal, alcoholic, overweight)
- Lifestyle Factors
- Na,C,Mg,K intake
- Hyperinsulinemia- To much insulin, apple shaped, metabolic syndrome
- Inflammatory response
What does it mean it there is an increase in C-reactive PRO?
Inflammation somewhere in the body & an increased risk of hypertension
What is the pathophysiology of Hypertension?
- Excessive secretion of vasopression % angiotensin II
- Smoking (Decreases nitrious oxide- so blood vessels are restricted)
- Renal Disease (increase Na retention and renin)
What are some diagnosis statements for PES?
- excessive energy intake
- Inadequate Ca, fiber, K, Mg
- Overweight or Obesity
- Lack of food related knowledge
What are some meds. for Hypertension?
- Loop Diuretics:Inhibit Na abs, K reabs, increase prostoglandins,
- Thiazides: Inhibit reabs of Na, K, and Cl, as on distal tube
- ACE Inhibitors: Block enzymes that changes from angiotensin I to II causing dilated blood vessels
- Beta Blockers: Lower BP
- Ca blocking agents
What is the DASH prescription per food group?
- Grains 6-8oz
- Veg 2-2.5 C.
- Fruits 2-2.5 C.
- Skim Milk 2-3 C.
- Lean Meats 6oz or <
- Nuts/Seeds, legumes 4-5oz/week
- *fiber for wt. control
What is the nutrition prescription for hypertension?
- Weight reduction
- Assess dietary intake
- Meet DASH dietary goals
- tailor exercise goals
Explain the process of CHD.
- Injury to the lining of the artery (smoking, homocystine, inflammation)
- Blood tried to repair damage
- Monocytes burrow in the blood-vessel walls where they mature into macrophages
- Macrophages consume oxidized fatty substances and die causing a buildup of tough fibrous scar tissue that can inhibit blood flow and promote clot formation
What can high levels of homocystine do? How can it be kept low?
- It can contribute to the initial damage of the artery.
- AI:Folacin, B6, B12
What is the diet impact on CHD?
- A high fat diet can contribute to increase amounts of LDL available to be oxidized.
- Lack of fruits/veg less anti-oxidants
What are the idea blood lipids?
- TC: <200
- LDL: <100 DM <70
- TG: <150
- HDL: <60
What is atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis?
- Antherosclerosis: Thickening of blood vessel walls caused by presence of plaque
- Arteriosclerosis: Includes loss of vascular elasticity