Systems1-qs.txt

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emm64
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134565
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Systems1-qs.txt
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2012-02-12 01:43:58
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Systems Misc Qs
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Systems Misc Q's
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  1. Use dependent sodium channel blockade by class IA antiarrhythmics (e.g., quinidine) includes all of the following except:
    • a. Increased action potential threshold
    • b. Increased refractory period
    • c. Increased automaticity
    • d. Decreased membrane responsiveness
    • e. Decreased conduction velocity
  2. c
  3. Compensatory changes in congestive heart failure include all of the following except:
    • a. Cardiac muscle hypertrophy.
    • b. Diuresis.
    • c. Increased ventricular volume.
    • d. Increased systemic vascular resistance.
    • e. Tachycardia.
  4. b
  5. Which of the following result from digitalis (cardiac glycoside) administration in a patient with congestive heart failure?
    • a. Tachycardia.
    • b. Sodium retention.
    • c. Increased peripheral resistance.
    • d. Increased cardiac output.
    • e. None of the above.
  6. d
  7. Which of the following drug combinations can result in excessive hypotension?
    • a. Sildenafil (cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor) and organic nitrate
    • b. Alcohol and organic nitrate
    • c. α1-Adrenoceptor blocker and organic nitrate
    • d. Dihydropyridine (calcium channel blocker) and organic nitrate
    • e. All of the above
  8. e
  9. Which of the following drug combinations can be useful in the treatment of typical angina?
    • a. Dihydropyridine (calcium channel blocker) and organic nitrate
    • b. Dihydropyridine (calcium channel blocker) and β-adrenoceptor blocker
    • c. a and b
    • d. None of the above
  10. c
  11. Which of the following drugs can be useful in the treatment of unstable angina?
    • a. β-adrenoceptor antagonists (e.g., atenolol)
    • b. Antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin)
    • c. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (e.g., losartan)
    • d. Lipid lowering drugs (e.g., lovastatin)
    • e. All of the above
  12. e
  13. Sublingual tablet but not coronary arterial injection of nitroglycerin provides relief from pain of typical (exertional) angina.
    • a. True
    • b. False
  14. a
  15. Low serum [K+] potentiates the action of digitalis glycosides and may result in fatal arrhythmias.
    • a. True
    • b. False
  16. a
  17. The orally active Class IB antiarrhythmic, lidocaine, is used primarily to treat supraventricular arrhythmias.
    • a. True
    • b. False
  18. b
  19. 1. Components of normal hemostasis include:
    • A. An intact blood vessel wall
    • B. Normal platelet function
    • C. Normal coagulation system
    • D. All of the above
  20. Correct answer: D
  21. 2. The endothelium has anti-thrombotic properties that include:
    • A. Anti-platelet effects
    • B. Anti-coagulant effects
    • C. Fibrinolytic effects
    • D. All of the above
  22. Correct answer: D
  23. 3. The intact endothelium:
    • A. Has anti-thrombotic effects
    • B. Only has pro-thrombotic effects
    • C. Attracts platelets
    • D. Separates the circulating blood from underlying collagen
  24. Correct answer: A
  25. 4. In the course of their activity, platelets do the following:
    • A. Adhere to exposed collagen
    • B. Secrete products from granules that aid in thrombosis
    • C. Aggregate to form a temporary hemostatic plug
    • D. All of the above
  26. Correct answer: D
  27. 5. The normal coagulation system consists of:
    • A. A sequence of enzymatic conversions turning pro-enzymes into activated enzymes
    • B. Involves conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
    • C. Involves calcium at multiple steps
    • D. All of the above
  28. Correct answer: D
  29. 6. The following have anti-coagulation effects:
    • A. Vitamin K
    • B. Protein S
    • C. The fibrinolytic system
    • D. Prostacyclin
  30. Correct answer: B
  31. 7. The following terms describe different amounts of accumulation of blood within tissue:
    • A. Petechiae
    • B. Purpura
    • C. Ecchymoses
    • D. All of the above
  32. Correct answer: D
  33. 8. Which of the following is not a beneficial effect of thrombosis:
    • A. Stops exsanguination from external injury
    • B. Controls local hemorrhage
    • C. Complete obstruction of a vessel shutting off the blood supply and causing ischemia
    • D. Provides growth factors which aid in healing
  34. Correct answer: C
  35. 9. Virchow’s triad:
    • A. Describe factors that favor thrombus formation
    • B. Describes factors that inhibit thrombus formation
    • C. Describes 3 diseses named after Virchow
    • D. Describes 3 symptoms described by Virchow
  36. Correct answer: A
  37. 10. Which of the following is not true of pulmonary embolism:
    • A. Results in hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in the United States
    • B. Most originate from the veins above the waist
    • C. Inactivity and surgery predispose to their occurence
    • D. Pulmonary infarction almost always complicates pulmonary embolism
  38. Correct answer: B
  39. 11. In addition to thrombi, other types of emboli include:
    • A. Gas
    • B. Amniotic fluid
    • C. Fat
    • D. All of the above
  40. Correct answer: D
  41. 12. Which of the following is the most important type of arteriosclerosis:
    • A. Arteriolosclerosis
    • B. Monckeberg’s arteriosclerosis
    • C. Atherosclerosis
    • D. Osteosclerosis
  42. Correct answer: C
  43. 13. Which of the following is not true of atherosclerosis:
    • A. It is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations
    • B. Death results from rupture or occlusion of arteries
    • C. The prevalence is close to 100% in adults
    • D. There is no relation to diet or cholesterol levels
  44. Correct answer: D
  45. 14. Which of the following is not a complication of myocardial infarction:
    • A. Left ventricular aneurysm
    • B. Acquired interventricular septal defect
    • C. Congestive heart failure
    • D. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  46. Correct answer: D
  47. 15. Which of the following is untrue about sudden cardiac death:
    • A. Most cases in the Western world are due to heart disease
    • B. Accounts for hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in the United States
    • C. Is most commonly due to coronary artery anomaly
    • D. In adults is most commonly due to ischemic heart disease
  48. Correct answer: C
  49. 16. Sudden death can be due to:
    • A. Diseases of the coronary arteries
    • B. Diseases of the myocardium
    • C. Diseases of the heart valves
    • D. All of the above
  50. Correct answer: D
  51. 17. Non-cardiac causes of sudden death include:
    • A. Pulmonary embolism
    • B. Abuse of recreational drugs such as cocaine
    • C. Ruptured aortic aneurysm
    • D. All of the above
  52. Correct answer: D
  53. 18. Which of the following is not considered an arterial vessel:
    • A. Elastic arteries
    • B. Muscular arteries
    • C. Arterioles
    • D. Lymphatic vessels
  54. Correct answer: D
  55. 19. Which of the following is incorrect about the tunica intima:
    • A. It is the innermost layer of the blood vessel
    • B. One of the components is endothelial cells
    • C. Another component is connective tissue
    • D. Is of uniform thickness throughout the arterial system
  56. Correct answer: D
  57. 20. Which of the following is true of tunica media:
    • A. In all arterial vessels, the primary component is smooth muscle cells
    • B. In all arterial vessels, the major component is elastic tissue
    • C. There is striated muscle within the media
    • D. One of the major functions is control of vascular resistance
  58. Correct answer: C
  59. 21. Which of the following is not true of aortic aneurysm:
    • A. The most common cause is atherosclerosis
    • B. They are rare before the age of 50
    • C. They are more frequently seen in men
    • D. The majority occur above the diaphragm
  60. Correct answer: D
  61. 22. Which of the following is not true of vasculitis:
    • A. It is an inflammation of the vessel wall
    • B. It is never due to infection
    • C. It is often not infectious
    • D. It is often immune-mediated
  62. Correct answer: B
  63. 23. Which of the following is true of hypertension:
    • A. It is more common in blacks
    • B. It increases in prevalence and incidence with age
    • C. It has been referred to as the silent killer
    • D. It always responds to medical therapy
  64. Correct answer: D
  65. 24. Which of the following is true of hypertension:
    • A. It is always due to renal disease
    • B. It is never due to renal disease
    • C. A cause can always be found
    • D. A variety of drugs can cause hypertension
  66. Correct answer: D
  67. 25. Which of the following regulates blood pressure:
    • A. Heart rate
    • B. Stroke volume
    • C. Total peripheral resistance
    • D. All of the above
  68. Correct answer: D
  69. 26. Which of the following statements is not true of essential hypertension:
    • A. It is the most common type of hypertension
    • B. There are definite genetic influences
    • C. There are environmental factors
    • D. It is not a common disease
  70. Correct answer: D
  71. 27. Which of the following is not a complication of hypertension:
    • A. Heart failure
    • B. Accelerated atherosclerosis
    • C. Cerebral hemorrhage
    • D. Migraine headaches
  72. Correct answer: D
  73. 28. Which of the following would not be considered a congenital cardiac malformation:
    • A. Ventricular septal defect
    • B. Coarctation of the aorta
    • C. Tetralogy of Fallot
    • D. Infective endocarditis
  74. Correct answer: D
  75. 29. Which of the following is not true of cardiac tumors:
    • A. Most are primary lesions
    • B. Most are benign
    • C. Metastatic tumors are more common than primary tumors
    • D. Of the metastatic tumors, carcinomas of lung and breast are among the most common
  76. Correct answer: A
  77. 30. Of the following tumors, which is the most common primary tumor of the heart in adults:
    • A. Metastatic carcinoma
    • B. Angiosarcoma
    • C. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • D. Cardiac myxoma
  78. Correct answer: D
  79. 1. Structural abnormalities of cardiac valves may result in:
    • 1. valvular regurgitation
    • 2. endocarditis
    • 3. valvular stenosis
    • 4. congestive heart failure
  80. Answer: All
  81. 2. Mitral valve competence depends on normal:
    • 1. mitral valve annulus
    • 2. mitral valve leaflets
    • 3. papillary muscles
    • 4. other contiguous structures
  82. Answer: All
  83. 3. Infective endocarditis can be complicated by:
    • 1. septic embolization
    • 2. valvular regurgitation
    • 3. death
    • 4. stroke
  84. Answer: All
  85. 4. Major causes of pericarditis include:
    • 1. infection
    • 2. “autoimmune” diseases
    • 3. myocardial infarction
    • 4. colonic polyps
  86. Answer: 1,2,3
  87. Know the 3 components of hemostasis
    • Platelets
    • Coagulation system
    • Intact vascular wall
  88. Know Virchow’s triad for thrombus formation
    • Stasis
    • Vascular injury
    • Hypercoagulable state
  89. Know the steps in formation of platelet hemostatic plug
    • Accumulate
    • Adhere
    • Secrete
    • Aggregate
  90. Know the causes of bleeding
    • Trauma
    • Vascular disorders
    • Platelet disorders
    • Clotting factor deficiencies
  91. Know the types of emboli that can occur
    • Gas
    • Amniotic fluid
    • Bone marrow
    • Atheroemboli
    • Fat emboli
    • Foreign bodies
    • Tumors
  92. Factors that contribute to hemostasis include:
    • a. platelets
    • b. heparin produced by endothelial cells
    • c. coagulation factors
    • d. hypertension
  93. Answer: 1
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  94. Virchow’s triad includes:
    • a. stasis
    • b. vascular injury
    • c. hypercoagulable state
    • d. thrombocytopenia
    • Answer: 3
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  95. In order for platelets to function normally the must:
    • a. accumulate
    • b. adhere
    • c. secrete
    • d. aggregate
  96. Answer: 4
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  97. After hip surgery, potential types of emboli include:
    • a. gas
    • b. thrombi
    • c. amniotic fluid
    • d. bone marrow
    • Answer: 2
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  98. At the time of delivering a baby, the mother is particularly susceptible to:
    • a. thromboembolism
    • b. gas embolism
    • c. amniotic fluid embolism
    • d. atheroembolism
    • Answer: 1
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  99. Know the types of arteriosclerosis:
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Monckeberg’s medial calcific sclerosis
    • Arteriolosclerosis
  100. Know the 3 classical types of atherosclerosis
    • Fatty streak
    • Fibrous plaque
    • Complicated plaque
  101. Know the major risk factors for atherosclerosis
    • Non-modifiable Modifiable
    • Age Hyperlipidemia
    • Male gender Cigarette smoking
    • Genetic abnormalities Diabetes mellitus
  102. Know the complications of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Arrhythmia
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Angina pectoris
  103. Know the complications of myocardial infarction
    • Arrhythmias
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Cardiac rupture
    • Thrombosis and thromboembolism
    • Pericarditis
    • Aneurysm
  104. Types of arteriosclerosis include
    • a. atherosclerosis
    • b. Monckeberg’s sclerosis
    • c. arteriolosclerosis
    • d. vasculitis
  105. Answer: 3
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  106. The only clinically significant plaque, the complicated atherosclerotic plaque, often evolves from:
    • a. Monckeberg’s medial sclerosis
    • b. fatty streaks
    • c. arteriolosclerosis
    • d. fibrous plaques
  107. Answer: 2
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  108. Which of the following are modifiable risk factors for coronary artery atherosclerosis:
    • a. cigarette smoking
    • b. hypertension
    • c. hyperlipidemia
    • d. male gender
  109. Answer: 3
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct
  110. Complications of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease include:
    • a. sudden death
    • b. angina pectoris
    • c. myocardial infarction
    • d. congestive heart failure
  111. Answer: 4
    • 1 if a + c are correct
    • 2 if b + d are correct
    • 3 if a, b, + c are correct
    • 4 if a, b, c, d are correct

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