The process of gathering and analysing demographic and psycological informationa bout audience members with the explicit aim of adapting your message to the information you uncover
An approach to speech prepration in which each phase of the speech preparation process is geared toward communicating a meaningful message to the audience.
To identify with values that are not your own in order to win approval from an audience
A predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects, or events in evaluative ways
the ways in which people percieve reality or determine the very existence or validity of something
Our most endureing judgements or standards of what's important to us (eg. equal opportunity, democracy, change and progres, or perserverance).
A feeling of commonality with another; when appropriate, effective speakers attempt to foster a sense of identification between themselfs and audience members
An audience in atendance not because they necessarily freely choose to listen to a speech but because they must.
Statistical characteristics of a given population. Characteristics typically considered in the analysis of audiencemembers include age, gender, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, and religous and political affiliation
Those individuals within the boroader audience who are most likely to be influenced in the direction the speaker seeks
Dividing a genral audience into smaller groups, called "target audience" with similar characteristics, wants, and needs
The collective cultural identity of a gernational or cohort
A community of people whose perceptions and beliefs differ significantly from those of other groups within the larger culture
socioeconomic status (SES)
A cluster of demographic characterists of audience members, including income, occupation, and education
Our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females
Language that oversimplifies or distors ideas about the innate nature of what it means to be male or female. An example is the generic use of the pronoune he or she
Oversimplifes and often severly distorted ideas about the innate nature of men or women
persons with disabilites (PWD)
A person whose physical or mental impairment substantially limits his or her major life activites
A culture that tends to emphasie personal identity and the needs of the individual rather than those of the group, upholding such values as individual achievement and decision making
A culture that tends to emphasize the needs and desires of the larger group rather than those of the individual
The extent to which people fel threatened by ambiguity
high-uncertainty avoidance culture
One of fibe "value dimisions" or major cultural patterns, that are signigicant across all cultrues to varying degrees; identified by Geert Hofstede
As developed by Geert Hofsteded, a measure of the extent to which a culture values social equality versus tradition and authority
A culture in wich members approach tasks systematically, preferring to do things one at a time and in an orderly fasion; one of three cultural types identified by Rachard D. Lewis.
A culture in which members do many tigns at once, are people oriented, and extroverted; one of three cultural types identified by Richard D. Lewis
A culture in which members rarely initiate discussions or actions, preferring to listen to what others have to say first; one of three cultural types identified by Richard D. Lewis
A type of communication conducted for the purpose of gathering information, cna be conducted one on one or in a group
A written survey designed to gather information from a large pool of respondents.
A question designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interiviewer.
fixed alternative question
A closed-ended question that contains a limited choice of answers, such as "yes," "no," or "sometimes."
Also called an "attitude scale," a closed-ended questiont aht measures the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues.
A question designed to allow respondents to elaborate as much as possible. These are particuarly useful for probing beliefs and opinions. They elicit more individual or personal information about audience members' thougths and feelings.
The strategic process of deciding how to order speech points into a coherent and convincing pattering for your topic and audience; also refers to one of the five parts of the classical canons of rhetoric
The physcial process of plotting speech points on the page in hierarchical order of importance
The first part of a speech in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relavance to the audience and previews the topic and the main points
the part of the speech in which the speakers develops the main points intednded to fulfill the speech purpose
The part of the speech in which the spearker reiterates the speech purpose, summaries main points, and leaves the audience with something to think about or act upon
The key ideas or primary points intended to fulfill the speech purpose. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis
Psychological principle in which listeners have abetter recall of the main points made at the beginning of a speech than of tose made later (unless the ideas made later are far more striking than te others)
Psycological principle in which listeners have a better recall of the most recent points in the speech (unless the ideas made ealier are far more striking than the others)
The statement of equivalent speech points in similar gramatical form and style
Information (examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker's assertions.
In an outline, the plotting of speech points to indicate their weight relative to one another; subordinate points are placed underneath and to the right of higher-order points.
roman nmeral outline
An outline format in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals supporting points with capital letters third-level points iwth arabic numerals and fourth level pints with lowercase letters
coordination and subordination
The logical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one another. Ideas that are coodinate are given equal weight. An idea that is subordinate to another is given relativly less weight
words, phrases or sentences that tie speech ideas together and enable a speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next
signals to listeners, in tehform of declartive sentances, that the speaker is turning to another topic
"restate- forcast" transition
A type of transtion in which the speaker restates the point just covered and previews the point to be covered next
A question that does not invite an actual response but is ued to make te audience think
Conjunctions or phrases (such as next, first second and so forth) that indicate transtions between supporting points
an extended transtiion used within the body of aspeech that alerts audience members to ensuring speech content
an extended transition that draws together important ideas before proceeding to another speech point