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pragmatic social philosophy unfettered by moral considerations
Greek: "the race is the center"
belief that the customs and beliefs of one's own culture are inherently superior to all others
Greek: term used to mock people who spoke in other languages; referred to other cultures considered "less than human" or uncivilized
Sage/Wise man; term applied to the first philosophers
the interplay of carefully argued ideas; the use of reason to order, clarify, and identify reality and truth according to agreed-upon standards of verification
Greek: "ordered whole"
First used by Pythagoreans to characterize the universe as an ordered whole consisting of harmonies of contrasting elements
combination of mind and soul, including capacity for reflective thinking
Greek: "intelligence", "speech", "discourse", "thought", "reason", "word", "meaning"
the rule according to which all things are accomplished and the law found in all things
the study of the universe as an ordered system
reductio ad absurdum
Latin: "reduce to absurdity"
form of argument that refutes an opponent's position by showing that accepting it leads to absurd, unacceptable, or contradictory conclusions
materialistic view that the universe consists entirely of empty space and ultimately simple entities that combine to form objects
Greek: "indivisible", "having no parts", "uncuttable"
minute material particles; the ultimate material constituents of all things
paid teachers of rhetoric;
relativists who taught that might makes right, truth is a matter of appearance and convention, and power is the ultimate value
empirically based philosophy that defines knowledge and truth in terms of practical consequences