Test Review Immunology and Serology

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Test Review Immunology and Serology
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2012-02-29 08:11:59
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Immunology Serology
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Immunology and Serology
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  1. The study of the reactions of a host when foreign substances are introduced into the body.
    Immunology
  2. Foreign substances that induce an immune response.
    antigens
  3. The condition of being resistant to infections.
    Immunity
  4. Exposing an individual to material from smallpox lesions to reduce the effects of the disease.
    variolation
  5. This person injected cellular material into individuals from cowpox lesions to prevent smallpox.
    Edward Jenner
  6. Procedure of injecting immunogenic material into the body to induce immunity.
    Vaccination
  7. Developed an anttenuated vaccine.
    Louis Pasteur
  8. Protection is always present.
    Innate Immunity
  9. Protection that arises by an immune response.
    Adoptive immunity
  10. Innate and adaptive further divided into.
    Humoral and cellular
  11. Substances, usually proteins, present in any bodily fluid
    Humoral
  12. Serum factors in the blood formed in response to exposure to foreign substances.
    Antibodies
  13. The study of non-cellular components in the blood.
    Serology
  14. Process by which particulate antigens, such as cells, aggregate to form larger complexes when a specific antibody is present.
    Aggulation
  15. The combination of a soluble antigen with a soluble antibody to produce visible insoluble complexes.
    Precipitation
  16. When an antigen causes a disease
    Pathogen
  17. Non-pathogenic bacteria in the intenstine, vagina and nasopharynx.
    Prevents colonization of new microorganisms.
    Resident Flora
  18. The process in which cells engulf and degrade the antigen.
    Phagocytosis
  19. Two populations of phagocytes.
    • Macrophages
    • Neutrophils
  20. The precursors of macrophages
    Monocytes
  21. Monocytes leave the circulation and enter the ___________.
    Tissues
  22. Monocytes differentiate into ________ in the tissues.
    Macrophages
  23. What are two functions of the macrophages?
    • Antigen presenting cells
    • Secrete cytokines
  24. Soluble proteins that regulate immune responses.
    Cytokines
  25. Movement through blood vessel/cell walls.
    Diapedesis
  26. Main role is phagocytosis.
    Neutrophils
  27. Defend against virally infected cells and some tumor cells.
    Natural Killer Cells
  28. Main host defense mechanism activated in response to parasitic infections, particularly helminths (worms).
    Eosinophils
  29. Found in connective tissue, along blood vessels.
    Granules contain enzymes - alkaline phosphate, acid phosphatase.
    Mast Cells
  30. Found in peripheral blood.
    Degranulate and histamine is released.
    Basophils
  31. When basophils degranulate in excessive amounts, an enormous hypersensitivity results in what?
    What other cells play a role in hypersensitivity reactions?
    anaphylaxis, mast cells
  32. Phagocytize antigen and present it to helper T-lymphocyte.
    They are the most potent phagocytic cell in the tissues.
    Dendritic Cells
  33. What are two normal serum components that increase rapidly due to infection and injury to the tissues?
    • C-reactive protein (CRP)
    • Complement
  34. Most widely used indicator of acute inflammation.
    Can be used to monitor outcome of surgery.
    C-Reactive protein (CRP)
  35. Overall function is the mediation of inflammation.
    Complement
  36. What is the key cell in the involved in immune response?
    lymphocyte
  37. Lymphocytes represent what percentage of circulating white blood cells?
    20-40%
  38. What are the two primary lymphoid organs?
    • thymus
    • bone marrow
  39. After maturity, lymphs go to ____________ organs.
    Secondary
  40. Name three of the secondary organs that lymphs go after maturity.
    • Spleen
    • lymph nodes
    • appendix
    • tonsils
    • other mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  41. Effector cells serving a regulatory role.
    T-lymphocytes
  42. Produce antibodies
    B-lymphocytes
  43. Large, granular, and plays a role in both the innate and adaptive immune response.
    NK cell
  44. Organ in which cells of immune system, mature differitiate and proliferate.
    Lymphoid Tissues
  45. Largest tissue of the body.
    Site of B-cell maturation.
    Bone Marrow
  46. 10 - 20% of bone marrow cells are
    B cells
  47. B cells and T cells circulate in ______________________.
    Immunosurveillance
  48. T cell maturation occurs where.
    Thymus
  49. What is another name for t cells?
    Thymocytes
  50. Mature T cells enter ______________________ stream and seed _________________________.
    peripheral blood; the secondary lymphoid tissue
  51. What are the two primary lymphoid tissue site?
    Bone marrow; Thymus
  52. What are the three secondary lymphoid tissue sites?
    Lymph nodes; Spleen; Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  53. What are the five different cells found in the lymph node tissue and the spleen?
    • B cells
    • T cells
    • Plasma
    • Memory Cells
    • Dendritic
  54. Name the cell:
    Actively secrete antibodies
    Plasma cells
  55. Name the cell:
    Generation of these cells is the primary function of lymph nodes.
    Memory Cells
  56. Name the cell:
    Found in the lymphnoid follicles
    Have long cytoplasmic processed that radiate out like tentacles
    Large number of receptors for antibody and complement
    Help capture antgen to present to T and B cells
    Dendritic
  57. Largest secondary lymphoid organ
    Removes old and damaged cells and foreign antigens from the blood
    Each day adult's blood volume passes thru 4 times
    Spleen
  58. Diffusely distributes lymphoid cells, not encapsulated.
    Found in the GI, respiratory and urogentital tracts.
    Site of macrophages and lymphocytes
    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  59. Name the cell:
    Differentiates into memory and plasma cells.
    B cell
  60. Name the cell:
    Humoral immunity
    B cell
  61. Name the cell:
    Play a role in cell-mediated immunity
    Produce sensitized lymphs that produce cytokines
    T cells
  62. Where are surface markers located?
    cell surfaces
  63. What are cell markers used for?
    • Differentiate between T and B cells
    • Distinguish developmental stages of these two types of cells
  64. What are clusters of differentiation (CD)?
    They are antigenic features of leukocytes that act as a reference in standardizing names of membrane proteins found on all human WBC's.
  65. B cell differentiation:
    CD45R
    CD19
    CD43
    CD24
    Interleukin-7 (IL-7)
    Two identical light and heavy chain of an antibody molecule
    Pro B cells
  66. B cell differentiation:
    Incomplete immunoglobulin (IgM)
    Lose CD43
    Stimulates burst of clonal expansion
    Pre-B cells
  67. B cell differentiation:
    Complete immunoglobulin (IgM)
    CD21; CD40; and MHC class II
    Immature B cells
  68. B cell differentiation:
    IgD is added
    Remain in the spleen in order to respond quickly to any blood-borne pathogens they may come in contact with
    Mature B cells
  69. B cell differentiation:
    CD25
    Receptor for interleukin 2 (IL-2)
    Gives rise to plasma cells and memory cells
    Activated B cells
  70. Name the cell:
    Most fully differentiated lymphocyte
    main function is antibody production
    Not normally found in peripheral blood
    are non dividing
    Die after several days
    Plasma Cells
  71. Name the cell:
    Capable of responding to antigen with increased speed and intensity
    Remain in an activated state for months or years
    Memory Cells
  72. 60 - 80% of circulating lymphocytes are ______________.
    T - cells
  73. What are two classes of t-cells?
    • Helper T-cells (CD4+)
    • Cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+)
  74. What is the primary role of CD4+ T cells?
    • Cytokine secretion
    • Alerts B cells to start making antibodies
  75. What is the primary role of CD8+ T cells?
    Destruction of infected host cells.
  76. A growth factor leading to clonal expansion.
    Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
  77. Name the cell:
    Kills target without prior exposure
    First line of defense against virally infected cells and tumor cells
    NK cells
  78. Macromolecule capable of triggering an adaptive immune response by inducing the formation of antibodies or sensitized T cells in an immunocompetent host
    Immunogens
  79. A substance that reacts with antibody or sensitized T cells but may not be able to evoke an immune response in the first place.
    Antigen
  80. What are five factors in influencing the immune response?
    • Age
    • Overall Health
    • Dosage
    • Route of inoculation
    • genetic capacity
  81. Small molecules that are not immunogenic.
    Become immunogenic when coupled to a high molecular weight protein/carrier molecule
    Haptens
  82. Haptens function as an ________.
    Epitope
  83. Antigens that belong to host
    Normally do not evoke an immune response
    Autoantigens
  84. Same species that capable of immune response
    Alloantigens
  85. Antigens that are from other species
    Heteroantigens
  86. Heteroantigens
    In plants or animals that are identical or closesly related in structure
    Causes antibody to cross react
    Principle used for IM test
    Heterophile Antigens
  87. Substances that enhance the immune response to an antigen
    Produces a local inflammatory response that attract a large number of immune system cells to the injection site
    Adjuvants
  88. The genetic capability to mount an immune response is linked to a group of molecules originally called human leukocyte antigens. They determine whether transplanted tissue is histocompatible.
    Major Histocombatibility Complex
  89. What is the main function of major histocombatibility complex?
    Bring antigen to cell surface
  90. What is the clinical relevence of MHC molecules?
    • May bein involed in:
    • Transfusion reactions
    • Graft rejections
    • Disease association
    • Regulation of immune response
    • Paternity testing
  91. What are the three forms of MCH molecules in Class I? They are found on all nucleated cells
    • HLA - A
    • HLA - B
    • HLA - C
  92. Total set of MHC alleles inherited from one parent.
    Halotype
  93. The sum of all halotypes from each parent.
    Genotype
  94. What are the three forms of MCH molecules in Class II?
    • HLA - DP
    • HLA - DQ
    • HLA - DR
  95. List the antigen presenting cells Class II MHC is expressed on.
    • B cells
    • Monocytes
    • Activated T cells
    • Macrophages
    • Dendritic Cells
  96. Ensures ability for some individuals to survive a new, deadly microbial strain introduced in the population due to HLA genes having many variant forms in the population.
    Polymorphism
  97. Specific glycoprotiens produced by the b-lymphs and plasma cells in response to a specific antigen and capable of reacting with that antigen.
    Immunoglobulins (Igs) aka antibodies
  98. Antibodies are considered to be a part of what branch of the immune system?
    Humoral
  99. List the 5 major classes of immunoglobulins.
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  100. What are all immunoglobulin chains made up of?
    Made up of 4 polypeptide chain units consisting of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains
  101. What are the two types of light chains?
    kappa and lambda
  102. What are the two chain regions?
    Variable and Constant
  103. Name the chain region: (Igs)
    Amino acids sequence shows tremendous variations from antibody to antibody
    Determinse specificity of the antibody
    Variable Region
  104. Name the chain region: (Igs)
    Constant amino acid sequence
    Defines the biological activity of the immunoglobulin
    Constant
  105. What are the biological activities of Igs?
    Binding of antibodies to microbes lead to their destruction by phagocytosis, cell lysis and neutralization of viruses and toxins
  106. Because antibodies have both a variable region and a constant region, they are said to be _________________.
    Bifunctional
  107. Produces 3 fragments
    2 are bind to specific antigen (Fab)
    1 crystallized from solution (Fe)
    Papain Cleavage
  108. What are three characateristics of the (Fe) fragment?
    Hint: part of Papain cleavage
    • Crystalizable fragment
    • No antigen binding ablility
    • Effector functions include opsonization and complement fixation
  109. What are 4 characteristics of (Fab) fragment?
    Hint: part of Papain Cleavage
    • Two identical fragments
    • Antigen binding capacity
    • Region consists of one light chain and 1/2 of a heavy chain
    • Held together by disulfude
  110. Name the Igs based on the following characteristics:
    Highest serum concentration
    Has the longest half-life 23 to 25 days
    Only immunoglobulin that cross the placenta and provide immunity for newborn
    Fixes complement
    Coats antigen for phagocytosis (Opsinization)
    neutralizes toxins and viruses
    Participates in agglutination and precipitation reactions
    IgG
  111. Name the Igs based on the following characterists:
    5- 10% of total serum immunoglobulin
    Macroglobulin
    Half-life of 10 days
    Composed of 5 monomers held together by J or joining
    chain
    Ten binding sites, star-like shape
    Most efficient at triggering classical complement pathway
    First antibody produced in an infection
    IgM
  112. IgM antibodies that recognize antigens of the ABO blood group present on RBC's.
    Natural isohemagglutins
  113. Which antibody is produced first in primary immune response?
    IgM
  114. Which antibody is produced in a secondary immune response?
    IgG
  115. Name the Igs based on the following characteristics:
    10 to 15 percent of circulating
    J chain
    May help in transport to mucosal
    secretions
    Is found in breast milk
    Acts as first line of defense on mucosal
    surfaces
    IgA
  116. Name the Igs based on the following characteristics:
    Extremelyscarce in serum
    Less than 0.001% of total immunoglobulins
    Half life of 2 to 3 days
    Second type of immunoglobulin to appear
    Does NOT appear to serve a protective
    function
    Does NOT bind complement
    Does NOT bind to neutrophils or macrophages
    Does NOT cross the placenta
    IgD
  117. Name Igs based on the following characteristics:
    Least abundant immunoglobulin
    0.0005 % of total serum immunoglobulins
    Doesnot participate in typical immunoglobulin reactions such as complement fixation, agglutination or opsonization
    NOT capable of crossing placenta
    Binds to basophils and tissue mast cells
    IgE
  118. Change in constant region of an antibody molecule.
    Specificity remains the same.
    Variable region linked to a different constant region.
    Biological function of the antibody is
    changed.
    Isotype Switching
  119. Identical antibodies produced from a single clone of B lymphs
    Monoclonal antbodies

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