Path E1/2

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HLW
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134615
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Path E1/2
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2012-02-12 09:39:47
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Path E1
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Path E1/2
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  1. What does blastomycosis or cryptococcosis cause in LN?
    chronic focal coalescing granulomatous lymphadenitis
  2. What does histoplasma and Leishmaniasis cause in LN?
    chronic diffuse granulomatous lymphadenitis
  3. What is the most common primary neoplasia of lymph nodes? How does LN appear at necropsy?
    lymphosarcoma (enlarged, obliterated normal architecture, pale, homogeneous, bulges)
  4. What are 2 substances observed in LN?
    • chyle (post-prandial)
    • gas (emphysema)
  5. How does chyle in LN appear?
    white, milky, distended mesenteric nodes
  6. How does gas/emphysema in LN appear?
    air filled spaces, enlarged, light and puffy, spongy
  7. What can cause emphysema in LN and which LN would be effected?
    • in mesenteric LN of pigs with intestinal emphysema
    • in tracheobronchial LN in cattle w/pulmonary emphysema
    • in any node draining area w/anaerobic infection
  8. What is lymphoma?
    tumors with lymph cells outside bone marrow, usually solid white mass
  9. Do large or small cell lymphomas usually proliferate a lot and respond to cytostatic chemotherapy?
    large cell lymphoma
  10. What are the 4 types of cattle lymphoma? Which ages are affected? Which is associated with BLV?
    • enzootic bovine leukosis (BLV retrovirus) 4-8yrs
    • sporadic forms (not viral; young)
    • --calf/juvenile type (multicentric) up to 6mo.
    • --thymic type, 1-2yr
    • --cutaneous type/skin nodules, 2-3yr
  11. What are preferential location for enzootic bovine leukosis and multicentric/juvenile lymphoma?
    heart, abomasum, uterus, lymph nodes, spinal cord, retro-orbital
  12. What are 4 forms of lymphoma in cats? What is the viral etiology?
    • multicentric
    • alimentary/intestinal
    • mediastinal/thymic
    • miscellaneous (renal, ocular, nasal, neural)
    • --FeLV etiology
  13. What causes erythroid hyperplasia of bone marrow? What about lymphoid hyperplasia of marrow?
    • erythroid hyperplasia in response to hypoxemia
    • lymphoid hyperplasia in response to antigen stimulation
  14. What are causes of secondary marrow hyperplasia?
    • inflammation, neoplasia, iron deficiency, asplenia
    • associated with reactive thrombocytosis
  15. What is bone marrow dysplasia? What is a primary cause? secondary?
    • abnormally large hematopoietic cells or altered cell formation
    • primary = idiopathic; secondary to infection, nutritional imbalance, toxicosis, etc.
  16. What is bone marrow aplasia?
    absence of marrow hematopoietic tissue of particular or all lineages
  17. what does aplastic anemia result in?
    aplastic pancytopenia (all lineages affected)
  18. What are some causes of aplasia?
    • chemicals (chemotherapeutics, bracken fern, estrogen-dogs)
    • infection (erlichiosis, parvo, EIA, FeLV)
    • idiopathic
  19. What cell line is most affected with aplasia during the first week? During the second week?
    • 1st: severe neutropenia -->infections
    • 2nd: severe thrombocytopenia --> hemorrhages
  20. What is the source of leukemia?
    arise from bone marrow hematopoietic cells; either lymphocytic or myelogenous
  21. What is the difference between acute and chronic leukemia? (degrees of differentiation, behavior)
    • acute: poorly differentiatied cells with aggressive clinical course
    • chronic: well diff. and slowly progress
  22. What is myelopththisis?
    replacement of hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow by fibrous tissue (malignant or granulomatous)
  23. What is cyclic hematopoiesis or lethal grey collie disease? How do the cells fluctuate during the 14 day cycles?
    • inherited disorder of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells; autosomal recessive associated with dilute hair color;
    • --14 day cycles of marked neutropenia, reticulocytosis, monocytosis, cytokine production and thrombocytosis
  24. What are 3 consequences of cyclic hematopoiesis?
    • infection (neutropenia)
    • bleeding (impaired plt function)
    • systemic amyloidosis (cyclic incr. in acute phase proteins during monocytosis)
  25. What are 3 types of cytopenia?
    • pancytopenia
    • aplastic cytopenia
    • anemia
  26. What is pancytopenia and what are 2 reasons for it?
    • decr. production of all 3 major marrow lineages resulting in anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia
    • -from myelopthisis or abnormal hematopoietic cells
  27. What does aplastic cytopenia result from?
    destruction of stem cells and progenitor cells
  28. Why can anemia result in murmurs?
    decreased viscosity of blood leads to decr. in laminar blood flow
  29. What are hallmarks of regenerative anemia?
    • reticulocytosis (except horses)
    • polychromasia, anisocytosis
    • incr. MCV, decr. MCHC
  30. What are hallmarks of nonregenerative anemia?
    • no reticulocytosis
    • decr. MCV, decr. MCHC (from Fe deficiency)
  31. How long does regeneration take to be evident in blood?
    • 3-4 days,
    • 7-10 days before max response
  32. What further evaluation is recommended to further investigate anemia?
    bone marrow evaluation
  33. What type of anemia is caused by trauma, hemostasis defect, neoplasia, GI ulcer, parasites?
    regenerative hemorrhagic anemia
  34. What type of anemia is caused by PK /PFK deficiencies, hemoparasites or immune mediated?
    extravascular hemolytic/regenerative anemia
  35. What type of anemia is caused by hypoP, PFK deficiency with alkalemia, hemoparasites, or immune mediated?
    intravascular hemolytic/regenerative anemia
  36. How does chronic disease cause nonregenerative anemia?
    iron deficiency or excessive RBC turnover

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