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What does blastomycosis or cryptococcosis cause in LN?
chronic focal coalescing granulomatous lymphadenitis
What does histoplasma and Leishmaniasis cause in LN?
chronic diffuse granulomatous lymphadenitis
What is the most common primary neoplasia of lymph nodes? How does LN appear at necropsy?
lymphosarcoma (enlarged, obliterated normal architecture, pale, homogeneous, bulges)
What are 2 substances observed in LN?
- chyle (post-prandial)
- gas (emphysema)
How does chyle in LN appear?
white, milky, distended mesenteric nodes
How does gas/emphysema in LN appear?
air filled spaces, enlarged, light and puffy, spongy
What can cause emphysema in LN and which LN would be effected?
- in mesenteric LN of pigs with intestinal emphysema
- in tracheobronchial LN in cattle w/pulmonary emphysema
- in any node draining area w/anaerobic infection
What is lymphoma?
tumors with lymph cells outside bone marrow, usually solid white mass
Do large or small cell lymphomas usually proliferate a lot and respond to cytostatic chemotherapy?
large cell lymphoma
What are the 4 types of cattle lymphoma? Which ages are affected? Which is associated with BLV?
- enzootic bovine leukosis (BLV retrovirus) 4-8yrs
- sporadic forms (not viral; young)
- --calf/juvenile type (multicentric) up to 6mo.
- --thymic type, 1-2yr
- --cutaneous type/skin nodules, 2-3yr
What are preferential location for enzootic bovine leukosis and multicentric/juvenile lymphoma?
heart, abomasum, uterus, lymph nodes, spinal cord, retro-orbital
What are 4 forms of lymphoma in cats? What is the viral etiology?
- miscellaneous (renal, ocular, nasal, neural)
- --FeLV etiology
What causes erythroid hyperplasia of bone marrow? What about lymphoid hyperplasia of marrow?
- erythroid hyperplasia in response to hypoxemia
- lymphoid hyperplasia in response to antigen stimulation
What are causes of secondary marrow hyperplasia?
- inflammation, neoplasia, iron deficiency, asplenia
- associated with reactive thrombocytosis
What is bone marrow dysplasia? What is a primary cause? secondary?
- abnormally large hematopoietic cells or altered cell formation
- primary = idiopathic; secondary to infection, nutritional imbalance, toxicosis, etc.
What is bone marrow aplasia?
absence of marrow hematopoietic tissue of particular or all lineages
what does aplastic anemia result in?
aplastic pancytopenia (all lineages affected)
What are some causes of aplasia?
- chemicals (chemotherapeutics, bracken fern, estrogen-dogs)
- infection (erlichiosis, parvo, EIA, FeLV)
What cell line is most affected with aplasia during the first week? During the second week?
- 1st: severe neutropenia -->infections
- 2nd: severe thrombocytopenia --> hemorrhages
What is the source of leukemia?
arise from bone marrow hematopoietic cells; either lymphocytic or myelogenous
What is the difference between acute and chronic leukemia? (degrees of differentiation, behavior)
- acute: poorly differentiatied cells with aggressive clinical course
- chronic: well diff. and slowly progress
What is myelopththisis?
replacement of hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow by fibrous tissue (malignant or granulomatous)
What is cyclic hematopoiesis or lethal grey collie disease? How do the cells fluctuate during the 14 day cycles?
- inherited disorder of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells; autosomal recessive associated with dilute hair color;
- --14 day cycles of marked neutropenia, reticulocytosis, monocytosis, cytokine production and thrombocytosis
What are 3 consequences of cyclic hematopoiesis?
- infection (neutropenia)
- bleeding (impaired plt function)
- systemic amyloidosis (cyclic incr. in acute phase proteins during monocytosis)
What are 3 types of cytopenia?
- aplastic cytopenia
What is pancytopenia and what are 2 reasons for it?
- decr. production of all 3 major marrow lineages resulting in anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia
- -from myelopthisis or abnormal hematopoietic cells
What does aplastic cytopenia result from?
destruction of stem cells and progenitor cells
Why can anemia result in murmurs?
decreased viscosity of blood leads to decr. in laminar blood flow
What are hallmarks of regenerative anemia?
- reticulocytosis (except horses)
- polychromasia, anisocytosis
- incr. MCV, decr. MCHC
What are hallmarks of nonregenerative anemia?
- no reticulocytosis
- decr. MCV, decr. MCHC (from Fe deficiency)
How long does regeneration take to be evident in blood?
- 3-4 days,
- 7-10 days before max response
What further evaluation is recommended to further investigate anemia?
bone marrow evaluation
What type of anemia is caused by trauma, hemostasis defect, neoplasia, GI ulcer, parasites?
regenerative hemorrhagic anemia
What type of anemia is caused by PK /PFK deficiencies, hemoparasites or immune mediated?
extravascular hemolytic/regenerative anemia
What type of anemia is caused by hypoP, PFK deficiency with alkalemia, hemoparasites, or immune mediated?
intravascular hemolytic/regenerative anemia
How does chronic disease cause nonregenerative anemia?
iron deficiency or excessive RBC turnover