Path E1/1

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Path E1/1
2012-02-12 09:39:54
Path E1

Path E1/1
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  1. What is a congenital disorder that affects both humoral and cell-mediated immunity (B and T lymphocytes)?
    combined immunodeficiency disorders
  2. What breed of horse is genetically susceptible to CIDs? What are common lesions?
    • Arabian foals
    • severe bronchopneumonia with a small thymus, spleen and lymph nodes
  3. Why do foals with CIDs usually die before 5 months?
    failure of T/B lymphocyte production leaves them susceptible to microbial pathogens
  4. What are 5 main etiology for degenerative disorders of thymus, spleen, and/or lymph nodes?
    virus, toxin, chemotherapeutic agents/radiation, malnutrition, aging
  5. What are some viruses that degenerate the thymus? What happens to cells in germinal center and cortex?
    • canine distemper, EHV-1, feline parvo, FIV, BVDV, HC
    • lymphocytolysis
  6. What happens when thymus is exposed to toxins like halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons?
    severe atrophy --> immunosuppression
  7. What is an example of thymic neoplasia of lymphoid origin?
    thymic lymphoma, T-lymphocyte neoplasm of young,
  8. What is an example of thymic neoplasia of epithelial origin? What other disease process is associated?
    thymoma; myasthenia gravis (megaesophagus) and immune mediated polymyositis in dogs
  9. What species are reported to have thymic hemorrhage and hematomas? What is common etiology?
    • dogs
    • trauma (HBC) or ingestion of rodenticide
  10. What are common lesions found with thymic hemorrhage?
    • hematomas confied to thymus or extend into mediatstinum
    • (in other sites too if rodenticide ingestion)
  11. What are 4 basic classifications of splenomegaly?
    • uniform v nodular
    • bloody v meaty (firm)
  12. What are causes of splenomegaly due to increased function?
    • removal of defective RBCs
    • immune hyperplasia (IMHA or infections)
    • EMH (marrow infiltration)
  13. What are causes of splenomegaly due to abnormal flow?
    • organ failure like cirrhosis or CHF
    • vascular obstructions
    • infection
  14. What are causes of splenomegaly due to infiltration?
    • metabolic disease (amyloidosis)
    • neoplasms (leukemia, lymphoma, hemangiosarc)
  15. Leukemia or lymphoma: neoplastic cells in circulation, originating from myeloid or lymphoid lines?
  16. Leukemia or lymphoma: neoplasia of lymphatics in solid organs?
  17. How would splenomegaly from congestion (torsion, euthanasia, or anesthesia) present pathologically?
    uniform, bloody consistency
  18. How would splenomegaly from acute hyperemia (septicemia, anthrax) present pathologically?
    uniform, bloody consistency
  19. How would splenomegaly from acute hemolytic anemia (babesia, EIA) present pathologically?
    uniform, bloody consistency
  20. How would splenomegaly from a low grade septicemia or chronic infectious disease present pathologically?
    uniform, firm/meaty (proliferation of macrophages)
  21. How would splenomegaly from prolonged hemolytic anemia (EIA) or extramedullary hematopiesis present?
    uniform, firm/meaty
  22. How would splenomegaly from lymphoid hyperplasia or neoplasia present?
    uniform, firm/meaty
  23. How would splenomegaly from depositions like amyloid or lysosomal storage disease present?
    uniform, firm/meaty
  24. How would splenomegaly from granulomas (brucella, mycobact) or abscesses (acute infectious disease) present?
    nodular, firm
  25. How would splenomegaly from metastitic neoplasia or primary neoplasias like fibroma, myxosarcoma, and osteosarcoma present?
    nodular, firm
  26. How would splenomegaly from hematomas, or hemangioma present?
    nodular, bloody
  27. How would splenomegaly from acute infarcts or incompletely contracted areas present?
    nodular, bloody
  28. What are 4 common diseases associated with small spleens?
    • developmental anomalies (immunodefic. disease, SCIDs)
    • aging changes (atrophy, loss of T/B cells)
    • wasting/cachexia
    • splenic contraction (fight/flite, CHF, shock)
  29. What are 5 reasons for small lymph nodes?
    • developmental disorder (hypoplasia, immunodeficiency)
    • lack on antigenic stimulation (depleted germinal center, follicle
    • cachexia/malnutrition
    • aging
    • viral infection (BVDV, CDV, MCF)
  30. Does cachexia reduce production of T or B lymphocytes?
    atrophy of T lymphocyte areas
  31. Does aging effect T or B lymphocytes?
    depression of immune system reduces both T and B as well as follicles
  32. Why are lymph nodes small with SCID in dogs and horses?
    • absence of lymphoid follicles and corticomedullary differentiation
    • few to no lymphocytes and plasma cells
  33. What are 6 main causes of large lymph nodes?
    • follicular (B cell) and diffuse (T cell) hyperplasia
    • acute lymphadenitis
    • chronic lymphadenitis (granuloma, chronic suppurative)
    • primary neoplasm (LSA)
    • metastatic neoplasms (SSC)
    • hyperplasia of monocyte-macrophage system
  34. What is the common reason for hyperplastic lymph nodes?
    generalized (systemic disease) or localized to regional LN (draining the inflamed area)
  35. What is the common reason for acute lymphadenitis?
    regional LN draining inflammatory site and gets infected
  36. What does Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis cause in LN of cattle and horses?
    chronic suppurative lymphadenitis
  37. What does Mycobacterium bovis and Johne's disease cause in LN?
    chronic, focal granulomatous lymphadenitis