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What substances can be observed in lymph nodes?
What are some possible causes of gas in lymph nodes?
- Pigs w/ intestinal emphysema (mesenteric LN)
- Cattle w/ pulmonary emphysema (tracheobronchial LN)
- Any node draining with anaerobic infection
What are some possible causes of lymph node atrophy?
- Developmental anomaly
- Viral infections (FIV)
What is a regional or generalized lymph node enlargement of unknown or unspecified cause?
What type of lymphomas are slowly proliferating and poorly responsive to cytostatic chemotherapy?
Small cell lymphoma
What type of lymphomas are highly proliferative and responsive to cytostatic chemotherapy?
Large cell lymphoma
What are some different causes of lymphomas in cattle?
- Enzootic bovine leukosis (BLV)
- Juvenile multicentric type (6 months)
- Thymic type (1-2 years)
- Cutaneous type (2-3 years)
What are the preferred locations of lymphomas in enzootic bovine leukosis caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV)?
- Lymph nodes
- Spinal canal
- Retro-orbital space
What is the usual cause of lymphomas in cats?
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
What are the different forms of lymphomas found in cats?
- Miscellaneous: renal, ocular, nasal, neural
What type of cytopenia involves the sustained decreased production of all three major hematopoietic lineages (anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia)?
What can pancytopenia be due to?
- Abnormality of hematopoietic cells
What are some possible causes of hematopoietic cell hyperplasia?
- Antigenic stimulation
- Reactive thrombocytosis
What is abnormally large hematopoietic cells or altered cell formation (altered shape or organization)?
What is absence of bone marrow hematopoietic tissue of a particular lineage?
What type of leukemia originates from outside the bone marrow?
Lymphocytic (lympoid) leukemia
What type of leukemia is of nonlymphoid origin?
Myelogenous (myeloid) leukemia
What is the replacement of hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow by fibrous tissue, malignant cells or granulomas?
What disease is an inherited disorder of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells caused by cyclic hematopoiesis in dogs?
Lethal gray collie disease
What is the hallmark of regenerative anemias?
What organ is often enlarged because of hemolysis?
What are some mechanisms of neutrophilic leukocytosis?
- Increased release of marrow storage pool cells
- Demargination of neutrophils
- Decreased extravasation into tissues
- Expansion of marrow precursor pool
What are some causes of neutrophilia?
- Glucocorticoid excess
- Epinephrine release
- Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LADs)