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Functions of the vertebral Column
- - Encloses and protects the spinal cord.
- - Acts as a support for the trunk
- - Supports the skull superiorly
- - Provdes attachment for the deep muscles of the back and the ribs laterally
firbocartilage interposed between the vertebrae and act as cushions
Characteristics of the Atlas
The first cervical vertebra (C1) is a ring-like structure with no body and a very short spinous process
The anterior portion of the ring receives the dens, then the transverse atlantal ligament divides the anterior with the posterior. The posterior portion transmits the spinal cord.
Characteristics of the Axis
- Has a strong conical process arising from the upper surface of its body. This process is called the dens or odontoid process.
- Is received into the anterior portion of the atlantal ring to act as a pivot for the altas.
Characteristics of the seventh cervical vertebra
the Vertebra Prominens
has a long prominent spinous process that projects almost horizontally to the posterior. The spinous process of C-7 is easily palapable at the posterior base of the neck.
Name the typical and atypical vertebra of the
typical vertebra C-3 through C-6
Atypical vertebra C-1, C-2, and C-7
Zygapophyseal Joints of the cervical spine
The zygapophyseal facet joints of the second through seventh cervical vertebrae lie at right angles to the mid-sagittal plane and are clearly shown in a lateral projection.
Invertebral Foramina of the cervical spine
- the intervertebral foramina of the cervical region oar directed anteriorly at a 45 degree angle from the mid-sagittal plane of the body.
- Accurate images demonstrating the foramina require a 15 degree angle cephalic of the central ray and a 45 degree rotation of the patient.
Zygapophyseal joints visualized in a lateral projection
In a lateral projection, both the left and the right zygapophyseal joints are superimposed
positioning to visualized the Intervertebral Foramina
of the cervical spine
Angle cephalic 15 degrees
LPO visualizes the RIGHT intervertebral foramina
RPO visualizes the LEFT intervertebral foramina
If you were to take the oblique projections of the cervical vertebrae in PA (RAO and LAO) what changes?
1. the central ray would be aimed 15 degrees caudal
- 2. the LEFT intervertebral vertebra would be visualized in an LAO
- and the RIGHT intervertebral vertebra would be visualized in the RAO
What are the structures shown for the AP projection of the C-spine
C-3 through C-7 in an AP projection
What is the name for the swimmers done in an erect position?
What is the name of the swimmers done in a supine position?
The posterolateral margins of each thoracic body have costal facets for articulation with the heads of the ribs.
In the thoracic vertebrae T-1 has a demifacet on its inferior border for articulation with the head of the second rib. the bodies of the second through eighth thoracic vertebrae contain demifacets superiorly and inferiorly. the ninth thoracic vertebra only has a superior demifacet.
the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae are short and have double pointed (bifid) tips (pg. 370)
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