BIO 370 CELL E1 C1

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BIO 370 CELL E1 C1
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2012-02-14 10:46:08
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BIO 370 CELL E1 C1 GSU SPRNG 2012
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  1. WHO INVENTED THE MICROSCOPE?
    ROBERT HOOKE 1665
  2. WHO WAS THE FIRST TO DESCRIBE LIVING CELLS?
    ROBERT HOOKE 1665
  3. SCHEIDEN & SACHWANN VIEW ON CELL ORGIN
    BOTH FELT CELLS AROSE FROM NONCELLULAR MATERIAL....PROVEN WRONG BY VIRCHOW 1855
  4. ALL PLANT TISSUE MADE OF CELLS AND PLANT EMBRYOS ARISE FROM A SINGLE CELL
    -WHO?
    • MATTHIAS SCHEIDEN
    • (DE) LAWYER TURNED BOTANIST
    • 1838
  5. WHAT ARE THE FIRST TWO TENNANTS OF THE CELL THEORY AND WHO PROPOSED THEM?
    • 1. ALLL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS
    • 2. THE CELL IS THE STRUCTURAL UNIT OF ALL ORGANISMS.
    • -SCHWANN 1839
  6. THAT IS THE 3RD TENNANT OF THE CELL THEORY AND WHO PROPOSED IT?
    • CELLS ARISE FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS.
    • RUDOLF VIRCHOW 1855
  7. CELLS FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES SHARE SIMILARITIES THOUGHT EVOLUTION, NAME 4 POINTS.
    • STRUCTURE
    • COMPOSITION
    • METABLOIC FEATURES (LIMITS)
    • GENETIC CODE
  8. T OR F?
    PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROVIDE FUEL FOR ALL LIFE?
    TRUE
  9. NAME 2 POINTS OF CELL REGULATION
    • 1. METABOLISM
    • A. CATABOLISM..BREAK DOWN
    • B. ANABOLISM....BUILD UP
    • 2. GENETICS
    • REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND POST-TRANSLATION.
  10. EVERY CELL HAS GENES, EXECPT SPERM.
    WHO AND WHEN?
    HANS DRIESCH 1891
  11. WHAT ARE PROKARYOTES AND WHEN DID THEY AROSE?
    • BACTERIA
    • 3.5 BILLION
  12. WHAT ARE EUKARYOTICS AND WHEN DID THEY COME ABOUT?
    • PTROTISTS, PLANTS, FUNGI AND ANIMALS
    • 1.5-2.0 BILLION
  13. All of the following are basic properties of cells except:
    B. Cells have a genetic program and the means to use it.
    C. Cells are capable of producing more of themselves.
    D. Cells are able to respond to stimuli.
    A. Cells have nuclei and mitochondria.
  14. All of the following are features of prokaryotes except:
    A. nitrogen fixation.
    B. sexual reproduction.
    C. locomotion.
    D. photosynthesis.
    B. sexual reproduction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following may account for the small size of
    cells?
    A.the rate of diffusion
    B.the surface area/volume ratio
    C.the number of mRNAs that can be produced by the nucleus
    D.all of the above
    D.all of the above
  16. Which of the following statements is not true of viruses?
    A. Viruses have been successfully grown in pure
    cultures in test tubes.
    B. All viruses are obligatory intracellular
    parasites.
    C. All viruses have either DNA or RNA as their
    genetic material.
    D. Viruses probably arose from small fragments
    of cellular chromosomes.
    A. Viruses have been successfully grown in purecultures in test tubes.
  17. T OT F ?
    If you were to study the sequences of nucleic acids in a variety of viruses and viral hosts, you would probably find more similar between viruses and their hosts than among different
    viruses.
    TRUE
  18. T OR F ?
    PROKARYOTES HAVE A NUCLEOD REGION WITH NO SPERATION?
    TRUE
  19. EUKARYOTES HAVE A TRUE MEMBRANE BOUND NUCLEUS WITH SERERATION OF ___________ & _____________.
    TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION
  20. WHO HAS MORE BASE PAIRS YEAST, BACTERIA OR HUMANS?
    • YEAST.
    • YEAST: 12M BP
    • BACTERIA:600K- 8M
    • US: 3B BP
  21. __________ Has Many Chromosomes That Are Made from Both DNA and Protein
    Eukaryotic
  22. True or false
    prokaryotic have a single strand of DNA chromosome, either linear or circular
    true
  23. T OR F ?
    EUKARYOTIC MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES AND CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS WHERE IS PROKARYOTIC HAVE NEITHER
    TRUE
  24. T OR F?
    EUKARYOTES AND PROKARYOTES BOTH HAVE RIBOSOMES DIFFER IN SIZE
    TRUE
  25. how do eukaryotic cells divide?
    mitosis
  26. the five steps of mitosis
    • INTERPHASE
    • PROPHASE
    • METAPHASE
    • ANAPHASE
    • TELOPHASE
  27. WHAT TYPE OF CELL DIVIDES BY BINARY FISSION
    prokaryotic
  28. eukaryotes use both__________ and________ for locomotion
    • cytoplasmic
    • cilia
  29. true or false to prokaryotic does have a flagella?
    true
  30. WHAT ARE THE TWO PROKARYOTIC SUB KINGDOMS
    • ARCHAEA
    • BACTERIA
  31. GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF THE MYCOPLASMA
    TB
  32. THE HELL IS A DICTYOSTELIUM?
    SLIM MOLD
  33. differentation of stem cells usually occurs when and what is a general reason why ?
    • EMBRYOIC
    • CHEMICAL RESPONSE
  34. GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A PROKARYOTIC GOING INTO A EURKATYOTIC FORM
    • VORTICELLA
    • A COMPLEX CILIATED PROTEIST.
    • MORE COMPLEX THAN THAN PLANT AND ANIMAL INDIVIDUAL CELLS.
  35. SACCHAROMYCESE CEREVISIAE IS A _______
    YEAST
  36. ARABADOPSIS THALIANA IS ________
    THE MUSTARD PLANT.....GROWNS FAST
  37. CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS IS THE______
    ROUNDWORM...NEMATODE
  38. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER IS THE _______
    FRUIT FLY
  39. MUS MUSCULUS IS KNOWN AS WHAT?
    MOUSE
  40. WHAT DO WE USE SACCHAROMYCESE CEREVISIAE?
    • YEAST
    • THE NUMBER OF PRITEINS ARE HOLOMOUS TO HUMANS OF CONSERVED FUNCTION.
  41. ARABADOPSIS THALIANA IS STUDIED WHY?
    • MUSTARD PLANT
    • SMALL GENOME (120 MILLION BP)
    • SMALL, GROWS FAST, LARGE SEED PRODUCTION.
  42. WHY UTILIZE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS ?
    • RINGWORM...NEMATODE
    • 1000 CELL STRUCTURES
    • CELL FUNCTIONS
    • SHORT G AND GENETIC ANALYSIS FRIENDLY
    • CAN LABEL NERVES WITH GFP
    • PROCESS WON 2002 NOBLE PRIZE
  43. WHY STUDY DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER?
    • FRUIT FLY
    • DEVELOPMENTAL AND NEUROLOGICAL STUDIES ON SIMPLE BEHAVIOUR
    • GIANT CHROMOSOME USED FOR STUDY OF EVO AND GENE EXP
  44. MUS MUSCULUS IS UTILIZED IN STUDIES WHY?
    CAN ACCPET HUMAN GRAFTS WITHOUT REJECTION.
  45. CELLS ARE MEASURED IN TWO WAYS. NAME THEM
    • MICROMETER 1mm = 10-6
    • NANOMETER 1nm = 10-9
  46. NANOMETER ANGSTROM MICROMETER.
    WHICH IS THE SMALLEST ?
    • ANGSTROM
    • 1/10TH OF 1nm
  47. WHAT IS THE SURFACE AREA OF A CELL?
    AREA2/VOLUME3
  48. _________OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES
    VIRUS
  49. A VIRUS OUTSIDE OF THE CELL IS CALLLED WHAT?
    VIRION
  50. TMV PROTEIN COAT ENCLOSES A SINGLE HELICAL------- MOLECULE
    RNA
  51. HOW LONG IS A TMV?
    18NM LONG AND 18NM WIDE
  52. T OR F ?
    viruses probably arose as fragments of host chromosomes that became semi-autonomous.
    TRUE
  53. NAME TWO TYPES OF VIRAL INFECTIONS
    • LYTIC
    • INTEGRATED
  54. DEFINE LYTIC VIRAL INFECTION
    VIRUS REDIRECTS THE HOST INTO MAKING MORE VIRUS PARTICLES, HOST CELL RUPTURES AND RELEASES.
  55. DEFINE INTERGRATED INFECTION
    • VIRUS INTERGRATES IT DNA (PROVIRUS) INTO THE HOST CHROMOSOMES.
    • HOST ACTS NORMAL UNTIL PROVIRUS STIMULATED.
    • LEADS TO LYSIS AND RELEASE OF VIRUS PROGENY.
  56. CAUSES DISEASE BY INTERFERING WITH GENE EXPRESSION OF HOST CELL
    • VIROIDS
    • SMALL NAKES RNA MOLECULES
  57. _________________is an infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form
    prions
  58. WHAT, WHEN AND WHERE DID WOESE USE IN HIS MOLECULAR CHRONOMETER COMPARISONS?
    • 1970
    • U of I
    • 16S rRNA PROKARYOTICS
    • 18SrRNA EUKARYOTICS
  59. WHY DID WOESE CHOOSE RNA TO TEST?
    LARGE QUANITIES IN CELL AND TENDS TO CHANGE SLOWLY OVER TIME.
  60. MOLECULAR CHRONOMETER PROCEDURE?
    • PURIFY 16S rRNA--->
    • T1 RIBONUCLEASE--->DIGESTION-->
    • OLIGONUCLEOTIDES (SHORT FRAGMENTS)-->
    • SEPERATE BY 2D GEL RUN--->
    • RESULT IS 2D FINGERPRINT.
  61. WHEN DID WOESE AND FOX WORK TOGTHER AND WHAT WAS THE RESULTS?
    • 1977
    • 13 DIFFERENT SPECIES
    • 3 CLASSES:URKARYOTES, EUBACTERIA & ARCHAEBACTERIA
  62. URKARYOTES, EUBACTERIA & ARCHAEBACTERIA TODAY ARE KNOWN AS WHAT ?
    • ARCHAEA(EXTREME)&BACTERIA(EUBACTERIA).
    • EUCARYA....EUKARYOTICS
  63. IN 1997 WHAT CHANGED TO THE CLASSIFICATION METHOD?
    ARCHAEBACTERIAL GENES (INFOMATIONAL PRODUCTS) WERE DIFFERENT THAN EXPECTED IN EUBACTERIA, LOOKED MORE LIKE EUKARYOTES.
  64. LGT...WHAT IS IT AND WHAT WAS THE TEXT REFERENCING?
    • LATERIAL GEN TRANSFER.
    • EVENT WHERE GENE IS PHAGOCYTIZED.
    • ESCHERICHIA & SALMONELLA
    • 755 GENES .. 20% OF E.COLI FROM FOREGIN GENES OVER 100M WHEN THE 2 SPLIT. FROM 233 LGT EVENTS.
  65. WHAT GENES DO YOU REVIEW TO DETERMINE PHYLOGENETIC SOURCE?
    GENES INVOLED IN INFO ACTIVITES. (TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION & REPLICATION). THINK rRNA..UNLIKELY TO INTERACT PROPERLY WITH OTHER MOLECULES, BECAUSE ITS SPECIFIC.
  66. WHAT 2 PHYLOGENTIC GROUPS ARE CLOSELY RELATED AND WHY?
    • ARCHAEBACTERIA (INFO GENES)
    • AND EUKARYOTICS (METABLOIC GENES)

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