Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

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ldbussian
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134642
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
Updated:
2012-02-12 12:45:00
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anatomy physiology
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First chapter of anatomy and physiology I.
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  1. Cytology:
    The study of cells
  2. Histology:
    The study of tissues
  3. Embryology:
    The study of changes before birth
  4. What are the levels of structural organization?
    • I. Chemical Level
    • II. Cellular Level
    • III. Tissue Level
    • IV. Organ Level
    • V. Organ System Level
    • VI. Organism
  5. Four basic tissue types:
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Muscular tissue
    • Nervous tissue
    • Connective tissue
  6. 9 regions of the abdominopelvic cavity:
    • R. hypochondriac region
    • R. lumbar region
    • R. iliac/inguinal region
    • Epigastric region
    • Umbilical region
    • Hypogastric/pubic region
    • L. hypochondriac region
    • L. lumbar region
    • L. iliac/inguinal region
  7. Serous Membranes
    Parietal layer: lines cavity wall; is outside of visceral layer

    Visceral layer: lines the actual organs
  8. Pericardial Cavity
    • Within the mediastinum
    • Contains heart
    • Pericardial fluid: separates membranes
    • Pericarditis: inflammation of the pericardial membranes
  9. Pleural Cavity
    • Contains lungs
    • Pleural fluid: separates two layers
    • Pleurisy: adherence of two layers after inflammation
  10. Peritoneal Cavity
    • Cavity of the abdomen
    • Peritoneal fluid: fluid inbetween the two layers
    • Peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneum
  11. Retroperitoneal Cavity
    Located behind peritoneum
  12. Dynamic Equilibrium
    Steady state at which the internal environment is kept. Always moving and changing, but in balance
  13. How to maintain homeostasis
    • 1. Sense internal environment change
    • 2. Control the organ systems which function to maintain the internal environment
  14. Negative feedback
    • Regulatory principle
    • Minimize difference between actual level and set point level of a variable
    • Components
    • - set point
    • - control center
    • - receptor
    • - effector
  15. Positive feedback
    • Different from negative feedback because it increases difference between actual and set point level of a variable
    • Does not lead to homeostasis
    • Changes in variable level in same direction as the initial change

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