AHS 235L - Week 1
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List the different parts of the microscope
Mechanical stage, coarse/fine focus knobs, ocular lens, objective lenses, microscope head, nosepiece, wide-field objectives, travel knobs, aperture diaphragm.
What is a mechanical stage?
Part of a microscope. Holds a glass slide to be evaulated
What are coarse/fine focus knobs?
Part of a microscope. Used to focus the image of the object being viewed.
What is an ocular lens?
Part of a microscope. Magnifies an object 10x
What are objective lenses?
Part of a microscope. Gives additoinal magnification power. Most compound microscopes have 3-4, each with a different magnification power.
What is a microscope head?
Part of a microscope. Supports the ocular lenses.
What is a nosepiece?
Part of a microscope. Holds objective lenses
What are wide-field objectives?
Part of a microscope. Provide a larger visual field area than the standard type.
What are travel knobs?
Part of a microscope. Used to move the glass slide on the mehchanical stage
What is an aperture diaphragm?
Part of a microscope. Used to control the amount of light illuminating the object.An iris consisting of a number of leaves that are opened or closed to control the amount of light illuminating the object.
List five veterinary specimens that a microscope wll be used to evaluate
Blood, urine, semen, exudates and transudates.
What are transudates?
a fluid substance that has passed through a membrane or has been extruded from a tissue; in contrast to an exudate, a transudate is characterized by high fluidity and a low content of protein, cells or solid matter derived from cells.
What are exudates?
A cell and protein-rich fluid that extravasates from the capillaries.
List the basic equipment necessary for hematologic analyses.
Centrifuge, Refractometer, Impendance Analyzer, Quantitative Buffy Coat System, Laser-based analyzer
What is a centrifuge?
Used to separate substances of different densities in a solution. Ex. serum/plasma separated from blood sample.
What is a refractometer?
Measures the refractive index of a solution. Speficic gravity of a solution can be obtained. Can be used to evaluate urine or other fluids and the protein concentration of plasma or other fluids.
What is an impedence analyzer?
Counts cells and determines the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Some also provide a partial white blood cell differential count.
What is a quantitative Buffy Coat system?
provides hematocrit value and estimates of leukocyte concentration and platelet concentration, partial differential count information
What is a laser-based analyzer?
Enumeration of monocytes, lumphocytes, granulocytes, and erythrocytes can also allow enumeration of mature and immature erythrocytes.
What is the minimal eqipment needed in a veterinary practice?
microscope, refractometer, microhematocrit centrifuge, and clinical centrifuge.
What does the abbreviation CBC stand for? And what blood tests does it include?
CBC stands for complete blood count. tests include impedence method and laser-based methods.
How much magnification does the ocular lens have? The objective lens?
- Ocular lens has 10x magnification.
- Objective lenses have 4x (scanning), 10x (low power), 40x (high dry) and 100x (oil immersion)
What happens if a centrifuge runs too long or too fast?
a centrifuge that is run too long or too fast may rupture cells and destroy the morphologic features of cells in the sediment
What are the two different types of centrifuges?
- Microhematocrit centrifuges are designed to hold capillary tubes
- Clinical centrifuges accomodates test tubes of various sizes
What is the specific gravity of water?
List two reasons why a veterinary practice would use an incubator
- 1. to make bacteria cultures
- 2. microbiology tests
What is present in a microhematocrit tube? What can you determine from the plasma/serum?
- plasma, buffy coat & erythrocytes.
- PCV (Packed cell volume) can be termined
What is a hemacytometer and what is it used for?
A hemacytometer is a speciazlied counting chamber used for determining WBC and platelet counts per microliter of blood.
Why is proper cleaning of the instruments/equipment (before and after usage) a must in veterinary practice?
Proper cleaning of equipment ensures accuracy of test results, precision of the eqipment, and reliability.
What is a binocular compound light microscope.
May be used to evaluate blood, urine, semen, exudates and transudates. It may also be used to detect internal and external parasites and initially characterize bacteria.
What is oil immersion?
Used with 100x objective lens and a drop of oil to avoid scratching the lens.
What is low power?
10x objective lens
What is high dry?
40x objective lens
What is a turret?
Holds the objective lenses, allows rotation of lenses
What is a condenser?
Most common is two lens Abbe-type. Lens that concentrates light from illumination source.
What is calibration?
Calibrating objective lenses individually.
What is a stage micrometer?
A microscope slide etched with a 2-mm line marked in .01mm (10-m) divisions used only once to calibrate the objectives of the microscope.
What are the three layers that blood will separate into after centrifugation?
- Red Blood Cells
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