Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4

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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4
2012-02-12 14:54:49
anatomy physiology body tissues

Chapter four of anatomy and physiology I.
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  1. Tissues
    Groups of cells that are similar in structure, function, and embryonic origin bound together with intercellular material
  2. Early embryo
    • Similar cells group together into three layers:
    • Ectoderm: forms both outer covering of body and the nervous tissue
    • Endoderm: forms inner lining of digestice tube and associated structures
    • Mesoderm: layer between ectoderm and endoderm - forms skeleton and muscles
  3. Epithelial Tissue functions:
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Secretion/Excretion
    • Filtration
  4. Simple Epithelium
    • Surface epithelia - singe layer of cells
    • Provides very little protection
    • Types: simple squamous epith; simple cuboidal epith; simple columnar epith; pseudostratified columnar epith.
  5. Stratified Epithelium
    • Two or more protective layers
    • Function to protect
    • Types: stratified squamous epith; stratified cuboidal epith; stratified columnar epith; transitional epith.
  6. Connective Tissue Functions
    • Binding organs
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Physical protection
    • Immune defense
    • Energy storage
    • Mineral storage
    • Heat production
    • Transport
  7. Fibroblasts
    • Spindle shaped cells that synthesize and maintain fibers
    • (fibrocytes are resting fibroblasts)
  8. Macrophages
    • Phagocytes (engulf foreign material)
    • Function as immune defense
    • Develop from monocytes
  9. Mast Cells
    Contain granules with histamine
  10. Adipocytes
    Fat cells
  11. Extracellular matrix
    • Groundsubstance - water, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan
    • Fibers
  12. Collagenous Fibers
    • Most abundant fiber type
    • Main protein: collagen
  13. Elastic Fibers
    • Found in tissues that stretch
    • Main protein: elastin
  14. Reticular Fibers
    • Form delicate supporting framework (stroma) for highly cellular organs
    • Main protein: reticulin
  15. Embryonic Connective Tissue
    Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue
  16. Mature Connective Tissue
    Fibroconnective tissue, cartilage, bone, liquid
  17. Areolar Connective Tissue
    • Loose fibroconnective tissue
    • Most widespread CT
    • Unorganized fiber arrangement with many spaces in between
    • Used to: attach skin to underlying tissue; loosely pack organs; support blood vessel lining, GI, respiratory and urinary tracts
  18. Adipose Connective Tissue
    • Adipocytes (fat cells) are main cells - accumulate fat as droplets
    • Increased blood vessel supply = increased metabolic activity
    • Found anywhere areolar CT is found
  19. Reticular Connective Tissue
    • Loose fibroconnective tissue
    • Fine network of branching reticular fibers
    • Stroma for organs - spaces filled with blood cells
  20. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
    • Collagen fibers tightly packed in a parallel bundle
    • Fibroblasts are only cells located between fibers
    • Strong tissue with few blood vessels
    • Used in: tendons, ligaments; fibrous membranes (fascia and aponeurosis)
  21. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    • Fibers condensed into irregular masses
    • Random fiber arrangement = tension resistance from all directions
    • Used in: dermis layer of skin; periosteum and perichondrium; fibrous capsule around many organs
  22. Elastic Connective Tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Elastic fiber count > collagen fiber count
    • Allow tissue stretch and return to normal
    • Used in: walls of arteries, trachea, bronchi, vocal cords
  23. Cartilage
    • Semi-rigid connective tissue
    • Groundsubstance: chondroitin sulfate provides resilience
    • Collagen fibers provide strength
    • Chondroblasts: cells that produce matrix (few)
    • Chondrocytes: mature cartilage cells surrounded by lacunae
    • Avascular matrix: no blood supply, so poor healing
    • Perichondrium: zone of condense dense irregular CT at cartilage periphery - contains blood vessels and nerves
    • 3 types: hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
  24. Bone
    • Specialized connective tissue
    • Matrix is mineralized (inorganic salt) = increased rigidity and strength
    • Vascular matrix: contains blood supply (Haversian Canals)
    • Lacunae are interconnected by canaluculi (canals)
  25. Blood
    • Specialized connective tissue
    • Formed elements: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
    • Extracellular matrix: plasma
  26. Skeletal Muscle
    • Specialized connective tissue
    • Contractile properties: function to move skeleton and organs, produce heat, and maintain posture
    • Voluntary/conscious control
    • Long and cylindrical muscle fiber with striations
    • Multinucleated
  27. Cardiac Muscle
    • Functions: form wall of heart - contractile units create "pumping action"
    • Contain myofibrils - just like skeletal muscle
    • Have intercalated discs: gap junctions and desmosomes
    • Single central nucleus
    • Involuntary control
  28. Smooth Muscle
    • Functions: forms walls of hollow internal structures (GI tract, blood vessels, ducts)
    • Visceral muscle: not striated, short spindle-shaped cell with tapered ends
    • Single central nucleus
    • Involuntary control
  29. Nervous Tissue
    Neurons and glial cells
  30. Endocrine glands
    Groups of secretory cells surrounded by network of capillaries - enter into blood stream
  31. Endocrine glands
    • Retain connection with epithelium from which they originate
    • Connection serves as a duct - exit out of body
  32. Merocrine
    • Exocytosis: vesicles form with the product you want to excrete inside of them
    • Zero cell destruction
    • Most common mode of secretion
    • Examples: pancreas, salivary glands, sweat glands
  33. Apocrine
    • Apical cytoplasm is shed with secretory vesicle
    • Lose entire apical portion of cell - some cell damage
    • Examples: some sweat glands and mammary glands, axillary, anal
  34. Holocrine
    • Whole cell ruptures
    • Secretion accumulation in cells -> cell ruptures and dies when secretion released
    • Example: sebaceous glands of the skin
  35. Tight Cell Junctions
    • Like zipper
    • Encircle epithelial cells near apex
    • Seal intercellular space - plasma membranes held tightly together
  36. Adherens Junctions
    • Form adhesion belts - like velcro
    • Belt around one cell connects to belt around another cell
  37. Desmosomes
    • Like a snap closure
    • "Spot welds" between cells
  38. Hemidesmosomes
    • Doesn't really attach two cells together
    • Attaches cells to extracellular structures (like basement membrane)
  39. Gap Junctions
    • Communicating junctions
    • Allow substances to pass from one cell to another
    • Important in muscle tissue (intercalated discs)
  40. Mucous Membranes
    • Moist, epithelial membranes
    • Line cavities opening to the outside
    • Secrete mucus
    • Three layers: epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
  41. Serous Membranes
    • Line ventral body cavities which don't open to exterior
    • Layers: simple squamous epithelium, thin layer of areolar CT
    • Mesothelium cells secrete serous fluid
  42. Cutaneous Membrane
    • Skin
    • Stratified squamous epithelium + areolar and dense irregular CT (dermis)
  43. Synovial Membrane
    • Line joint cavities
    • Not epithelial membrane (only one!)
    • Produce synovial fluid