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Most common sites for venipuncture in cats
Most common sites for venipuncture in dogs
Cephalic, jugular, saphenous
Most common sites for venipuncture in horses
Most common sites for venipuncture in cows
caudal, mammary, jugular
Most common sites for venipuncture in birds
wing vein, toenail clip
Most common sites for venipuncture in rabbits
ear vein, toenail clip
Most common sites for venipuncture in rodents
tail vein, cardiac puncture
What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing it in here? Uses?
- EDTA (potassium sodium
- used for hematology, CBC, platelet counts
- invert 8-10 times after collection
What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing it in here?
- Clot activator and gel for serum separation, no anti-coagulant
- Invert 5 times, allow to clot then centrifuge.
- Use in chemistries
What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing in here? Uses?
- Invert 8-10 times
- Used in critical RBC measurements, electrolytes, stats.
- Never use for differnential blood film analysis.
What type of anticoagulant? Uses? How to properly handle blood after?
- Coagulation assay, transfusion
- Invert 8-10 times
What are granulocytes?
- Basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
- have granules in the cytoplasm
What are non-granulocytes?
- Lymphocytes, monocytes
- Do not have granules in cytoplasm
What should be labled on all blood tubes?
Date and time collected, owner name and patient name
What is a WBC differnential? Which WBCs are being evaluated?
- The WBC differential is performed in the smear monolayer by using oil immersion and is used to find abnormalities not detected by hematology analyzers. Used to dtermine % of WBC types.
- Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils are evaluatd.
Describe all the steps for creating a wedge film blood smear
- 1. Place a small drop of blood smear near one end of the microscope slide
- 2.Place the narrow edge of a second slide (spreader slide) against the surface of the first slide at a 30 degree angle.
- 3. Draw the spreader slide back into the drop of blood
- 4. Allow the blood to spread along more of the width of the edge of the spreader slide
- 5.Push the spreader slide forward with a steady, even rapid motion
- 6. Wave the slide gently to allow it to air dry
Explain the types of stain is used to stain a blood smear
- Commonly avaliable Romanowsky stains include Wright's stain, Weight-Giemsa stain and Diff-quick.
- Usually nclude a fixative and buffered solution of eosin and methylene blue.
- The fixative is usually 95% methanol.
- The eosin component is buffered at an acidic pH and stains the basic components of the cells such as hemoglobin and eosinophilic granules. The methylene blue component is buffered to an alkaline pH and stains the acidic compenent of the cell.
Explain the process for doing a WBC differential and how to calculate the % of each type of WBC
- count, identify and record 100 whtie blood cells in the microscope field in the monolayer just adjacent to the feathered edge using oil immersion.
- ex. 10 monocytes out of 100 WBC = 10% monocytes
How would you calculate absolute values from a WBC count differential?
Total white blood cell count x %WBC = absolute number
What is hemolysis?
destruction of erythrocytes
What is lipemia?
presence of fatty material in plasma or serum
What is icteric?
Abnormal yellowish discoloration of skin, mucous membranes, or plasma as a result of increased concentration of bile pigments
What are platelets?
Aka thrombocytes. are the cells circulating in the blood that are involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary hemostasis leading to the formation of clots
What is a CBC?
complete blood count
Under which power total magnification do we visualize a blood film for a differential white blood cell count?
Cellular components of whole blood?
- Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
- Leukocytes (white blood cells)
- Thrombocytes (platelets)
Content/characteristics of plasma?
- protein - albumin, globulin
- soluble fibrinogen
- lipids, metabolic waste, dissolved gases (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen), electrolytes
- 90% water, 10% dissolved constiuents
- anticoagulant added and then centrifuged
What is serum?
- PLasma without fibrinogen
- Use SST (tiger top tube, serum separator) tub eused without anticoagulant
What are the reference ranges?
Species, gender, sexual status, age
Name the different types of white blood cells
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
decrease in number of cells
-philia or -cytosis
increase in the number of cells
What type of anticoagulant is in the red top tube? What are its uses?
None, it is used for chemistries
What are blood films used to perform?
Differential WBC count, estimate platelet numbers and evaluate morphology of WBCs, RBCs, and platelets.
Describe the staining technique for blood films
- 1. Fixative- light blue solution - 1 minute
- 2. Stain - Fuschia solutoin - 30-45 minutes
- 3. Countertain - Deep purple solutoin - 30-45 seconds
Name the advantages and disadvantages of manual counts with wright-giemsa stains
- Adv: RBC morphology better seen
- Disadv: labor intensive.