BI 102 test 1

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  1. capillaries
    smallest-diameter blood vessels; site of exchanges of gases and other materials with the tissues
  2. closed circulatory system
    circulatory system in which blood flows through a continuous network of vessels
  3. heart
    muscular organ that pumps fluid through a body
  4. interstitial fluid
    fluid between cells of a multicelled body
  5. open circulatory system
    circulatory system in which blood leaves vessels and flows among tissues
  6. aorta
    large artery that receives blood pumped out of the left ventricle
  7. arteriole
    blood vessel that carries blood from an artery to a capillary bed
  8. artery
    large-diameter blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to an organ
  9. atrium
    heart chamber that pumps blood into a ventricle
  10. pulmonary circuit
    circuit through which blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back
  11. systemic circuit
    circuit through which blood flows from the heart to the body tissues and back
  12. vein
    large-diameter vessel that returns blood to the heart
  13. ventricle
    heart chamber that pumps blood out ofthe heart and into an artery
  14. venule
    small-diameter blood vessel that carries blood from capillaries to a vein
  15. cardiac cycle
    sequence of contraction and relaxation of heart chambers that occurs with each heartbeat
  16. cardiac pacemaker
    group of heart cells (SA node) that emits rhythmic signals calling for muscle contraction
  17. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    life-saving technique that keeps oxygen flowing to tissue when the heart stops beating; involves mouth-to-mouth respiration and chest compressions
  18. defibrillator
    device that administers an electric shock to the chest wall to reset the SA node and restart the heart
  19. blood pressure
    pressure exerted by blood against the walls of blood vessels
  20. diastolic pressure
    blood pressure when the ventricles are relaxed
  21. plasma
    fluid portion of blood
  22. platelet
    cell fragment that helps blood clot
  23. pulse
    brief stretching of artery walls that occurs when ventricles contract
  24. red blood cell
    hemoglobin-filled blood cells that transport oxygen
  25. systolic pressure
    blood pressure when the ventricles are contracting
  26. white blood cell
    blood cell with a role in housekeeping and defense
  27. gills
    folds or body extensions that increase the surface area for respiration
  28. integumentary exchange
    gas excchange across the outer body surface
  29. lungs
    internal saclike prgans that serve as the respiratory surface in most land vertebrates and some fish
  30. respiration
    physiological process by which gases enter and leave ana animal body
  31. respiratory surface
    moist surface across which gases are exchanged between animals cells and their environment
  32. tracheal system
    tubes that deliver air from body surface to tissues of insects and some other land arthropods
  33. alveoli (singular, alveolus)
    tiny, thin-walled air sacs that are the site of gas exchange in the lung
  34. bronchiole
    small airway leading to alveoli
  35. bronchus (plural, bronchi)
    airway connecting the trachea to a lung
  36. diaphragm
    done-shaped muscle at base of thoractic cavity that alters the size of this cavity during breathing
  37. epiglottis
    tissue flap that folds down to prevent food from entering the airways when you swallow
  38. glottis
    opening formed when the vocal cords relax
  39. intercostal muscles
    muscles between the ribs; help alter the size of the thoracic cavity during breathing
  40. larynx
    short airway containing the vocal cords (voice box)
  41. pharynx
    throat; opens to airways and digestine tract
  42. respiratory cycle
    one inhalation and one exhalation
  43. trachea
    major airway leading to the lungs; windpipe
  44. anemia
    fewer than normal or impaired red blood cells
  45. atherosclerosis
    artery interior narrows because of lipid deposition and inflammation
  46. embolus
    clot that forms in a blood vessel, then breaks loose
  47. heart attack
    heart cells die because of impaired blood flow through cardiac arteries
  48. hypertension
    chronically high blood pressure
  49. leukemia
    cancer that increases white blood cell numbers
  50. stroke
    brain cells die because a clot or vessel rupture disrupts blood flow within the brain
  51. thrombus
    clot that forms in a vessel and remains there
  52. all vertebrates have ____
    a closed circulatory system
  53. the SA node ____
    is the cardiac pacemaker
  54. blood pressure is highest ____ and lowest in the ____
    arieries, veins
  55. contraction of ____ is the main force driving the flow of blood away from the heart
    the vantricles
  56. at rest the largest volume of blood is in the ___
  57. in the blood, most oxygen is transported ___
    in red blood cells bound to hemoglobin
  58. the ___ circuit carries blood from the heart to the lungs, then back to the heart
  59. the heart chamber with the thickest wall pumps blood into the ___
  60. in human lungs, has exchange occurs at the ___
  61. when you breathe quietly, inhalation is ___ and exhalation is ___
    active, passive
  62. during inhalation ___
    the thoracic cavity expands
  63. the diaphragm is ___ muscle
  64. the order that air flows inward when inhaled
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchus
    • bronchiole
  65. plasma
    fluid component of blood
  66. alveolus
    site of gas exchange
  67. hemoglobin
    reversibly binds oxygen
  68. veins
    blood volume reservoir
  69. SA node
    cardiac pacemake
  70. trachea
  71. glottis
    gap between vocal cords
  72. ventricle
    drives blood flow from heart
  73. atrium
    receives blood from veins
  74. adaptive immunity
    set of vertebrate immune defenses tailored to specific pathogens encountered by an organism during its lifetime
  75. antigen
    a molecule or particle that the immune system recognizes as nonself. triggers an immune response
  76. complement
    a set of proteins that circulate in inactive form in blood. part of innate immunity
  77. immunity
    the body's ability to resist and fight infections
  78. innate immunity
    set of inborn, fixed general defenses against infection
  79. B lymphocyte (B cell)
    type of white blood cell that makes antibodies
  80. basophil
    circulating white blood cell; role in inflammation
  81. dendritic cell
    phagocytic white cell that patrols tissue fluids
  82. eosinophil
    white blood cell that targets internal parasites
  83. lysozyme
    antibacterial enzyme that occurs in body secretions such as mucus
  84. macrophage
    phagocytic white blood cell that patrols tissue fluids
  85. mast cell
    white blood cell that is anchored in many tissues; factor in inflammation
  86. natural killer cell (NK cell)
    white blood cell thar kills infected or cancerous cells
  87. neutrophil
    circulating phagocytic white blood cell
  88. normal flora
    microorganisms that typically live on human surfaces, including the interior tubes and cavities of the digestive and respiratory tracts
  89. T lymphocyte (T cell)
    circulating white blood cell central to adaptive immunity; some kinds target sick body cells
  90. fever
    an internally induced rise in core body temperature above the normal set point as a response to infection
  91. inflammation
    a local response to tissue damage or infection; characterized by redness, warmth, swelling, and pain
  92. MHC markers
    self-recognition protein on the surface of body cells. triggers adaptive immune respose when bound to antigen fragments
  93. plaque
    on teeth, a thick bioflim composed of bacteria, their extrecellular products, and saliva proteins
  94. T cell receptor (TCR)
    antigen-binding receptor on the surface of T cells; also recognizes MHC markers
  95. antibody-mediated immne response
    immune response in which antibodies are produced in response to an antigen
  96. cell-mediated immune response
    immune response involving cytontoxic T cells and NK cells that destroy infected or cancerous body cells
  97. effector cell
    antigen-sensitized B cell or T cell that forms in an immune response and acts immediately
  98. memory cell
    antigen-sensitized B and T cell that forms in a primary immune response but does not act immediately
  99. antibody
    Y-shaped antigen receptor protein made only by B cells
  100. AIDS
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a collection of diseases that develops after a virus (HIV) weakens the immune system
  101. allergen
    a normally harmless substance that provokes an immune response in some people
  102. allergy
    sensitivity to an allergen
  103. autoimmune response
    immune response that targets one's own tissues
  104. immunization
    a procedure designed to promote immunity to a disease
  105. vaccine
    a preparation introduced into the body in order to elicit immunity to an antigen
  106. activated complement proteins ___
    • form pore complexes
    • promote inflammation
    • attract phagocytes
  107. ________ trigger immune responses
  108. antibodies are ___
    • antigen receptors
    • made only by B cells
    • proteins
  109. antibody-mediated responses work against ___
    extracellular pathogens
  110. cell-mediated responses work against ___
    • intracellular pathogens
    • cancerous cells
  111. ____ are targets of cytotoxic T cells
    virus-infected body cells or tumor cells
  112. first line of immune defences include
    • skin
    • mucous
    • membranes
    • tears
    • saliva
    • gastric fluid
    • urine flow
    • resident bacterial populations
    • lysozyme
  113. innate immue responses ___
    • phagocytic cells
    • fever
    • histamines
    • cytokines
    • inflammation
    • complement activation
  114. adaptive immune response ___
    • phagocytic cells
    • antigen-presenting cells
    • cytokines
    • antigen receptors
    • complement activation
    • antibodies
Card Set
BI 102 test 1
ch 21-22
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