A & P 4

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A & P 4
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2012-02-17 23:04:06
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cellular level of organization
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  1. define cell
    basic unit of all living things
  2. prokaryotic cells
    • ex: bacteria
    • simple cells
    • most are unicellular organisms
    • dont have true nucleus
  3. eukaryotic cells
    • exs: fungi, plants, animals (humans)
    • have a true nucleus
    • have organelles (subcellular structures)
  4. identify the 3 main parts of a cell and their function
    • plasma membrane- covers & protects cell, controls what gets in and leaves, forms links to other cells, & "flies a flag" to identify the tissue or organ that the cell comes from as well as the individual that it belongs to
    • cytoplasm- gives the cell its shape, it's comprised of cytosol (mixture of water, salts, & structural proteins(cytoskeletal)) & organelles (tiny organs that carry out essential cell functions, EXCEPT THE NUCLEUS)
    • nucleus- contains genetic (info is stored) library for the cell (control center) DNA & RNA
  5. list & classify components of plasma membrane (fluid-mosaic model)
    • 1. lipids consist of polar head groups (hydrophilic-water soluble) with non-polar tails (hydrophobic-fat soluble)
    • 2. lipids arrange themselves into two layers- head groups facing intra and extracellular solutions (cookie in oreo) & lipid tails form layer in between (creme in cookie)
    • 3. lipids can move side-to-side, but never flip from outside to inside or vice versa
    • 4. proteins are embedded in the lipid "sea" free to float around side-to-side, but never flip over
    • 5. protein arrangements can be in one of two broad categories: peripheral proteins(associate with either extra/intracellular lipid heads) or integral proteins (span membrane w/ hydrophobic amino acid residues hanging out w/ lipid tails in hydrophobic core of cookie)
  6. peripheral proteins
    loosely associated w/ cell memebrane & lie either completely on outside or completely on inside of cell (they do NOT cross lipid bilayer)
  7. integral (transmembrane) proteins
    span cell membrane from outside to inside cell (they DO cross lipid bilayer)
  8. define permeability
    tells us how easily a substance can cross the plasma membrane
  9. classify substances according to permeability through the plasma membrane
    • because of the distribution of lipids & proteins embedded in it, membrane allows some substances across, but not others
    • water is a special case

    • gases- PASS EASILY
    • small, fat-soluble molecules- PASS EASILY
    • charged ions(K+, Na+, Ca++, HPO4=, etc..) large, water soluble molecules (proteins)- DON'T PASS
  10. name the 6 functional classes of membrane proteins
    • ion channels
    • carriers
    • receptors
    • enzymes
    • linkers
    • cell identity markers
  11. describe function of ION CHANNELS
    • span lipid bilayer & allow charged ions to pass down their concentration gradient (from high concentration areas to low)
    • some are open all the time
    • some are gated: open and close on demand
  12. describe function of CARRIER PROTEINS
    • many molecules that cannot cross the cell membrane are "ferried"
    • this can occur up or down a concentration gradient(from high to low, or low to high)
    • if it occurs against a concentration gradient, energy is required (energy comes from ATP& other molecules that run down their concentration gradient)
  13. describe function of RECEPTOR PROTEINS
    • signals outside the cell can affect activities inside the cell
    • cell uses receptor proteins to detect an extracellular signal & transduce it to an intracellular signal
  14. define RECEPTORS
    membrane proteins responsible for picking up signals from outside the cell
  15. define LIGAND
    signaling molecule that binds to the receptor
  16. define SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    process by which a signal outside the cell is transformed into a change inside the cell
  17. describe function of MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED ENZYMES
    • enzymes are proteins that catalyze(speed up) chemical reactions(blue curve(on bottom), bring reactants together to speed up reaction)
    • enzymes on the cell surface catalyze chemical reactions there
  18. activation energy
    "bump" in the energy curve
  19. enzymes
    proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, they can't and don't change the energy profile of the reaction, but instead lower the activation energy
  20. describe function of LINKER PROTEINS
    • internal structure of cell must be connected to connective tissues outside the cell
    • linkers joing proteins inside & outside the cell
  21. describe function of CELL MARKER PROTEINS
    • ways to identify cells that belong to you, & what organ they belong to
    • ex: MHC molecules used to match transplant donor & recipient ("flags" must match what's expected by surveillance system or "invader" will be "fired upon' by immune system)
    • sugars connected to proteins(glycoproteins) commonly used as "flags"
  22. molecules ALWAYS diffuse from
    an area of high concentration (unstopping of perfume bottle) to area of low concentration (air in room where bottle is opened)
  23. describe SIMPLE DIFFUSION
    • molecules in a gas or liquid can move around(*Brownian motion: random motion of small particles in solution *they zip around and bang into each other, like little billard balls on speed)
    • warmer the temp, more movement
    • smaller the molecule, more movement
    • random movement is seen as diffusion: overtime, concentration of substance will become equal in all parts of the system
  24. describe FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • used to move a substance, such as glucose, down its concentration gradient
    • only water and gases can move across the cell membrane w/out help
    • for everything except water and gases, some sort of escort is necessary
  25. define OSMOSIS
    • term that describes the diffusion of solvents across a semi-permeable membrane
    • when we combine diffusion of water with a semi-permeable membrane
  26. describe OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    • increase in volume when the walls of the container are rigid
    • by measuring the amount of pressure needed to restore the volume, we can measure osmotic pressure
  27. -describe the effects of changing tonicity on cells
    • TONICITY describes the concentration of salts
    • because water CAN pass freely across the cell membrane, the concentration of water i critical for maintainin cell integrity
    • HYPERTONIC=high salt concentration=low water concentration (water moves from high concentration to low, so it flows out of cell)
    • HYPTONIC=low salt concentration=high water concentration (water moves from high concentration to low, so it flows into cell)
    • ISOTONIC=no net movement of water (water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell)
  28. PASSIVE TRANSPORT
    NO ENERGY needed
  29. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • only water and gases move by simple diffusion across the cell membrane
    • larger molecules and charged molecules have to be "escorted", even if the concentration is higher outside than inside
    • protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane facilitate the diffusion of substances
  30. examples o FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    potassium ions & glucose
  31. Facilitated diffusion example: K+
    • potassium concentration is low outside th cell, high inside
    • potassium "wants" to leave the cell
    • it CAN'T (the non-polar lipid tails in the membrane repel charged ions like K+
    • a protein forms a gated channel to allow K+ to pass as needed
  32. Facilitated diffusion example: glucose
    • glucose concentration is high outside the cell and low inside
    • cell NEEDS glucose, alot!
    • glucose "wants" to move from outside(high concentration) to inside(low concentration)
    • it CAN'T (the non-polar lipid tails in the membrane repel large, water-soluble molecules like glucose)
    • a rotein glucose carrier facilitates the diffusion of glucose
  33. describe FILTRATION
    • sorting particles based on size
    • each filtration medium has a "pore size"
    • if mater CAN fit into pore, it stays in solution- if CAN'T fit, than it's trapped
  34. colloid, suspensions, emulsions, & solutions
    • particles in a colloid stay dispersed over time
    • a suspension has even larger particles than a colloid, and these settle to the bottom of a container, given time (muddy water)
    • blood is a suspension, colloid, & a solution
  35. example of FILTRATION
    • Kidney- cells and most proteins are left in blood, while small molecules (such as water, salts, & glucose) are able to pass through the filter)
    • GLOMERULI- filtration system in the kidneys
  36. ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    • REQUIRES ENERGY
    • when molecules are moved against their concentration gradient (from low to high concentration)
  37. examples of ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    • Na+ is high outside, low inside
    • K+ is low outside, high inside
    • Na+/K+ pump moves both against their concentration gradients (Na moves out, K moves in) splits ATP for energy to do this (ATPase)
  38. define ELECTROGENIC
    since 3 positive charges are pumped out for every 2 allowed in, the cell is made more negative inside by the pump
  39. describe the Na/K ATPase (Na/K pump) 4steps
    • step 1: Na high out, low in- K low out, high in- pump wants to move BOTH against their gradients- ATP is used as energy source- 3 Na bind to pocket in pump protein
    • step 2: 3 Na expelled from cell- ATP split to ADP + P + energy * goal of pump is to maintain concentration of extracellular cation Na & intracellular cation K
    • step 3: K pocket exposed- P released
    • step 4: 2 K enter cell- Pump is reset to bind 3 more Na
  40. ACTIVE TRANSPORT- ANTIPORT
    • opposite direction
    • 2 ions move in opposite directions to DRIVE the pump
  41. ACTIVE TRANSPORT- SYMPORT
    • same direction
    • a molecule & an ion move in the same direction to DRIVE the pump
  42. summarize essential features of ENDOCYTOSIS
    • require energy from ATP
    • materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
    • 3 types of endocytosis: phagocytosis, pinocytosis (bulk-phase endocytosis), & receptor-mediated endocytosis
  43. define VESICLE
    • small, spherical sac(little blister or bladder)
    • transports a variety of substances from one structure to another w/in cells
    • also import materials from & release materials into extracellular fluid
  44. ENDOCYTOSIS- RECEPTOR- MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
    • cell surface proteins (receptor proteins) bind a substance of interest, & then signal the cell to begin the process of pinching off a vesicle
    • ex: LDL particles are taken into the cell by this process so that the lipd may be used for cell membrane
  45. define CLATHRIN
    intracellular receptors, makes protein membrane
  46. LDL is used for what?
    cell metabolism membrane repair
  47. ENDOCYTOSIS- PHAGOCYTOSIS
    • cell's way of eating things
    • solid material
    • important process for the defense of the body against invaders
    • when the invaders are detected, specialized white blood cells known as macrophages & neutrophils (examples) surround and kill the invading cells
  48. ENDOCYTOSIS- PINOCYTOSIS (aka- BULK-PHASE ENDOCYTOSIS)
    • liquid material
    • akin to phagocytosis, but is used to bring liquids into the cell
    • cell makes a pit, then seals it- in the process, a vesicle-ful of liquid is incorporated into the cell ("swallowing" a tiny ball of liquid)
  49. summarize essential features of EXOCYTOSIS
    • the way the materials are removed from the cell (cellular waste)
    • used to send materials out of the cell in bulk
    • process is active, requires energy
    • material to be moved is packaged in a vesicle ("littl bladder") - surrounded by membrane -vesicle fuses with cell membrane, expelling the material from the cell
    • reverse endocytosis
    • ANOTHER USE OF EXOCYTOSIS is to place markers on the cell membrane "fly a flag"
  50. define CYTOPLASM
    • "fruit & gel" of fruitcake
    • contains cytosol & subcellular structures (organelles)
  51. define CYTOSOL
    • "gel" of fruitcake
    • made up of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets & glycogen granules
    • solutes include: K^+, Na^+, Cl^-, HCO3^-, PO4^3-, HPO4^2-, H2PO4^-, other ions, sugar monomers & polymers, amino acid monomers & polymers, & RNA
    • some solutes are made other places and then exported into the cytosol (ex: RNA-made in nucleus)
  52. define ORGANELLES
    • semi-independent parts
    • carries out business of the cell
    • 5 main divisions of organelle function: structural integrity, motility, sythesis, storage & digestion, & energy production
  53. STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ORGANELLES
    cytoskeleton & centrosome
  54. MOTILITY ORGANELLES
    cilia & flagella
  55. SYTHESIS ORGANELLES
    • ribosome
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi complex
  56. STORAGE & DIGESTION ORGANELLES
    • smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • lysosome
    • peroxisome
    • proteasome
  57. ENERGY PRODUCTION ORGANELLES
    mitochondrion
  58. describe CYTOSKELETON
    • structural integrity-structural protein- needed to move substances around the cell, as well as to move te cell around in its environment
    • "cell skeleton" is to the cell as the human is to the body
    • made up of a # of different proteins that form thread- or tube- like structures
    • 3 sizes made up of different proteins: (classified by size, smallest to largest) 1. microfilaments (actin-helps control muscles) 2. intermediate filaments (keratin) 3. microtubules (tubulin)
  59. describe LAMELLIPODIA
    • cell extensions that carry out this essential function (look like ruffles or sheets, we can see these moving in real time)
    • facilitates cell movement along a surface allowing it to sample the environment
    • moves cell in its environment
    • actin filaments extend lamellipodia
  60. describe MICROVILLI
    • "little shaggy hairs"
    • in cells that need to increase their surface area
    • ex: surface of intestines
    • villi have microvilli
    • each microvillus has a microfilament core
    • digestive enzymes & cell "flags" form GLYCOCALYX (sugar-protein coat)
  61. discuss Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, & Microtubules
    • order from smallest to largest: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, & microtubules
    • microfilaments- actin
    • intermediate filaments- keratin
    • microtubules- tubulin
    • microfilaments (2 strands) and intermediate filaments (many different proteins) are thread-like structures, microtubules (hollow tube) are built like drinking straws
  62. describe CENTROSOME
    • example of Microtubule organizing center (MTOC)
    • grow microtubules
    • made up of: 2 centrioles & pericentriolar material ((PCM) "clouds")
  63. MTOC
    • microtubule organizing center
    • cell locations where microtubules are built, so they represent the origin of microtubules
  64. defin CHROMOSOMES
    packed genetic material that must be evenly split between the two daughter cells
  65. SPINDLE APPARATUS
    • rigid like structure which lines up, and then divides chromosomes
    • chromosomes have centrosomes in center/ where microtubules have grown from centriole and attached to chromosomes
  66. describe CILIA
    • MOTILITY organelle
      hair-like extensions on the cell surface
    • usually on luminal (inside) surface of tube-like structures
    • moves material on top of the cell
    • ex: in the human body- in the lower respiratory tract, where they drive something called the mucociliary escalator
  67. describe FLAGELLA
    • MOTILITY organelle
    • whip-like extension on the cell surface
    • usually only one per cell
    • in humans, only cell w/ a flagellum is the SPERM cell
    • a flagellum moves the cell through material
  68. describe cilia and flagella structure
    • they have the same basic structure
    • only difference is who gets moved, and who stays put
    • at BASE- 9 triplets of microtubules
    • at BODY- 9 doublets of microtubules
  69. define MUCOCILIARY ESCALATOR
    continually brings mucus, dead invaders, and inhaled crud up from bottom of lungs to the throat, where it is swallowed
  70. describe RIBOSOMES
    • SYNTHESIS organelle
    • site of protein synthesis
    • combo of a particular subtype of RNA, called ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), plus proteins
    • made up of large & small units
    • job is to MAKE PROTEINS
    • either found as free ribosomes or associated w/ membranes to make up RER
    • free ribosomes synthesize proteins in the cytosol
    • also found as part of the organelle ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (RER)
    • HOLE & GROOVE pieces come together to form complete ribosome
  71. mRNA
    • messenger RNA- instruction sheet
    • "blueprint"
  72. tRNA
    • transfer RNA- carrier for the raw materials of proteins (amino acids)
    • "pieces of puzzle"
  73. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (RER)
    • SYNTHESIS organelle
      intracellular network
      ROUGH because of the ribosomes lying on the surface
    • collection of membrane bags w/ ribosomes arranged all along the outside
    • genetic code material is copied in the nucleus, taken out to the RER to be read
    • MAKES PROTEINS
  74. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (SER)
    • SYNTHESIS organelle
    • intracellular network
    • several different organelles w/ similar appearance, so that they cannot be distinguished in electron micrographs of the cell
    • function- synthesis (lipis & steroids)
    • MAKES FATS
  75. describe GOLGI COMPLEX (aka-GOLGI APPARATUS)
    • SYNTHESIS organelle
    • receives unprocessed proteins from the RER & modifies them into their final form
    • then packages the proteins & "tags" them for export to their final destination (UPS/post office- it cuts the tags off the gifts the cell wants to send, boxes them w/ packing material as needed to keep them from being broken, & then labels the box to send them to the correct destination)
  76. ENTRY FACE or CIS FACE
    • faces RER
    • receives transported material from the RER
  77. EXIT FACE or TRANS FACE
    • faces the plasma membrane
    • gives rise to secretory vesicles
  78. define MEDIAL CISTERNAE
    sacs between the cis/entry & trans/exit faces
  79. steps for PRTEIN PROCESSING
    • 1. proteins are synthesized in the RER
    • 2. TRANSPORT VESICLES carry "raw", unprocessed proteins to the GOLGI
    • 3. transport vesicles fuse w/ the entry/cis face of the golgi
    • 4. as proteins are processed, they are moved from one golgi stack to the next by TRANSFER VESICLES. in the golgi stacks, the unused part of proteins are removed by one set of enzymes &, if a glycoprotein is being produced, the branched sugar groups are added here
    • 5. last transfer vesicle fuses w/ the exit/trans face of golgi
    • 6. the processed, completed protein is packaged into a vesicle and the vesicle is shed from the exit/trans face of golgi
  80. vesicle may end up in 1 of 3 places:
    • if a secretory protein- packaged into a vesicle & released from the cell by exocytosis
    • if a membrane protein (or glycoprotein)- packaged into a membrane vesicle which fuses w/ cell membrane, the proteins or glycoproteins then become part of cell surface
    • if protein is defective or not needed, then packaged into a vesicle which is directed to lysosome for breakdown & recycling
  81. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (SER) 2nd part
    • STORAGE & DIGESTION organelle
    • stores Ca++ in muscle
    • degestive function include: destruction of toxins; recycling of cell membrane; metabolism of carbs; & metabolism of steroids
  82. LYSOSOME
    • STORAGE & DIGESTION organelle
    • 100x's more acidic than cell/cytoplasm
    • formed from trans/exit face of golgi
    • digests things the cell wants to get rid of (cell's "garbage can" or "recycling bin")
    • if cell is dying, entire cell is dumped into the "garbage can"
    • pH about 5.0
    • they're bags of enzymes
    • enzymes which work best @ acid pH are inside (hydrolases)
  83. PEROXISOME
    • STORAGE & DIGESTION organelle
    • destroy materials for cell
    • are membrane-bound
    • unique properties: can replicate themselves, make hydrogen peroxide (is toxic& needs to by inactivated by enzyme catalase
    • common in liver & kidney (it's the "detox" function)
    • break down fatty acids (reaction called beta oxidation) to obtain energy
    • generate FREE RADICALS (unpaired electron/ extremely damaging)
  84. OILRIG
    • Oxidation
    • Is
    • Losing
    • Reduction
    • Is
    • Gaining
  85. PROTEASOME
    • STORAGE & DIGESTION organelle
    • breakdown proteins
    • "paper shredder"
    • processes misfolded or malformed proteins
    • mostly works on intracellular /mis-folded proteins
    • UBIQUITIN tags these for destruction
  86. UBIQUITIN
    binds to "bad" protein, then leads the protein to the proteasome which acts like a paper shredder to degrade protein
  87. MITOCHONDRIA
    • ENERGY PRODUCTION organelle
    • "POWER HOUSE" of a cell
    • makes ATP
    • bounded by double-layered membrane (inner & outer mitochondrial membranes-protons(H+) are pumped into space in between, "run" ATP sythesis)
    • have their own DNA (inherited only from the mother)
  88. ANABOLISM
    • BUILDUP of smaller molecules into larger ones
    • consume ATP & release waste energy as heat
    • energy stored in chemical bonds (ENDERGONIC)
    • reaction REQUIRES energy
  89. CATABOLISM
    • BREAKDOWN of large molecules into smaller ones
    • energy is released from bonds (EXERGONIC)
    • create ATP & also release waste energy as heat
  90. CELLULAR RESPIRATION (flow chart)
  91. ATP's central role in metabolism
    • CATABOLIC-foods from the diet are broken into amino acids(proteins), sugars(carbs), & fatty acids(lipids) (used to make ATP)
    • ANABOLIC- ATP is then used to make cellular structures which are made of amino acids, sugars, & fatty acids
  92. explain what happens when we need energy
    • we break (dephosphorylation) one phosphate off of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- leaving Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
    • when we consume (phosphorylation) food energy we turn ADP back into ATP
  93. organ systems interact to maintain energy homeostasis
    • digestive system- absorbs nutrients from food
    • respiratory system- brings O2 in, blows CO2 out
    • circulatory system- brings nutrients & O2 to cells, carries waste & CO2 away
    • excretory system- rids body of waste (urea from proteins in urine & other wastes)
  94. GLUCOSE
    • C6H12O6
    • primary carb (starting material for cellular energy production)
  95. PYRUVIC ACID=PYRUVATE
    • major player in metabolism
    • 3-carbon molecule
    • important intermediate in metabolism
  96. LACTIC ACID=LACTATE
    • major player in metabolism
    • 3-carbon molecule
    • represents a metabolic "dead end"
  97. COENZYME A (CoA)
    • "bucket" or "shovel" for 2-carbon molecules
    • the 2-carbon molecule that is carried by CoA is an acetyl group (called acetyl-CoA, when carrying)
    • important feature- ONLY 2-carbon units CAN fit into the KREBS CYCLE "furnace"
  98. PROTON CARRIERS
    • "buckets"
    • protons produced during the KREBS CYCLE are carried by FADH & NAD+
    • (there are also electron "buckets" part of the electron transport chain of mitochondria
  99. FADH & NAD+
    • these 2 cofactors are NOT consumed in metabolic reactions
    • they serve as "hydrogen buckets" carrying hydrogen atoms (H) to where they're needed
    • currency to be stored & used later on
  100. (glycolysis) cellular respiration
    • w/out O2: anaerobic, makes 2 net ATP per glucose molecule
    • w/ O2: aerobic, makes 32-34 ATP per glucose molecule
    • 1. GLYCOLYSIS(breakdown glucose)(oxgygen NOT needed) 6Carbons, break them in half: IN-C6H12O6 / OUT-2 PYRUVATE (C-C-C), 2 NADH+, & 2 ATP (4 ATP-2=2 NET)
    • 2. FORMATION OF ACETYL CoA(needs oxygen): IN- 2 PYRUVATE / OUT-2 CO2, 2 NADH, & 2 ACETYL CoA
    • 3. KREBS CYCLE (inner matrix): IN- 2 ACETYL CoA / OUT- (2 CO2 X 2) 4 CO2, (3 NADH+ X 2) 6 NADH, (1 FADH2 X 2) 2 FADH2, & (1 ATP X 2) 2 ATP
    • 4. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC): for every NADH+ you get 3 ATP & for every FADH2 you get 2 ATP
  101. GLYCOLYSIS (in cytoplasm)
    • does NOT need mitochondria
    • 1 glucose molecule is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (C3H4O3)
    • 4 ATPs are made, but 2 are consumed, for a net gain of: 4 made - 2 used=2 net (2 ATPs per glucose)
  102. compare & contrast glycolysis in the presence or absence of oxygen
    • w/out O2: anaerobic pathway only, lactic acid formed as by-product
    • w/ O2: aerobic respiratory pathway, pyruvate(3 carbons) transferred to mitochondrion for further processing
  103. define LACTIC ACIDOSIS
    when lactic acid builds up as a result of anaerobic metabolism, the cell becomes more acidic and the cell's metabolism is rendered even less efficient
  104. KREBS CYCLE (aka CITRIC ACID CYCLE)
    • operates in a circular fashion, adding & subtracting carbons & giving off electrons as a side product
    • these electrons are carried by cofactors called FADH2 & NADH so they may be used in the ETC
    • (x's everything by 2)
    • 3 NADH=6
    • 1 FADH=2
    • 1 ATP=2+2=4 2 from GLYCOLYSIS
  105. explain the electron transport chain
    • NADH & FADH2 bring hydrogen atoms to the electron transport chain
    • the H+ ions (protons) are stripped away & dumped between the inner & outer mitochondrial membranes
    • electrons are stripped & used to play hot potato
    • finally, protons are allowed to run down their concentration gradient to drive a "turbine" that generates ATP
  106. explain how GLYCOGEN is used as an energy source
    • if glucose in blood exceeds metabolic needs, then glucose is stored in a readily-available form called GLYCOGEN
    • most glycogen is in liver & muscles
    • when energy is needed, glycogen is broke down to its 6-phosphate monomers which are then available to provide energy
  107. define GLUCONEOGENESIS
    • taking non-carb sources and making carbs out of them for energy ("making new glucose")
    • occurs in the liver
  108. explain how PROTEINS & AMINO ACIDS are used as energy sources
    • humans don't store a significant amount of energy as protein (since it's made up of proteins)
    • breakdown of proteins in skeletal muscle & other tissues releases large amounts of amino acids
    • the 2-carbon backbone of these amino acids can be used for production of glucose
  109. define UREA
    • major component of urine
    • it's an amino group or NH2
  110. explain how LIPIDS are used as an energy source
    • in the disease called diabetes mellitus, cells cannot metabolize glucose, instead they turn to fat stores as an energy source
    • fat(lipid) is metabolized by beta-oxidation
    • KETONES are produced as a by-product
    • (ketosis & metaboic acidosis are signs of diabetes mellitus)
    • also beta-oxidation produces hydrogen ions (H+) or acid
  111. ATP accounting principles (chart)
  112. mitochondrial inefficiency
    • every once in a while, the mitochondrial proteins "slip" & make an error in the handling of electrons or protons- formation of free radicals
    • common free radicals: superoxide, hydroxide, & peroxinitrite- they react with proteins or lipids and gum up the efficient operation of the cell

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