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Ireland in the Neolithic Stone age
- -Invention of agriculture
- -steady food source, settlement and strategy
- -new pottery
- -animals brought over from scottland
- Founds pollin profile- determines settlements in an area
- --> elm hazel, mixed oils, grasses, nettle
- tombs (buriel chambers) built with rocks... center gathering area covered in dirt uses over and over again.
-New pottery necklaces and beads corded ware- molded with core
- -Crusiform tombs... MOST FAMOUS = New Grange
- = has light box that creates total light on winter solstace
- passage tombs found in groups..
Also have Dolemans= single mates were buried during this time under huge bolder held up by stones
- 2000 BC Bringing in bronze better tools and weapons.. LOTS of copper..
- -new elegant pottery- S curve
- -Wedge tombs- giant rings used for ceremonies.. myth that fairys were inside circles..
- -Horns made music for religous ceremonies
- 5th century BC until roman conquest
- -Came from germany and switzerland
- -Brought the ring fort- circular enclosure: homestead/military 30-40 thousand built
- -->forts that over looked the sea MOST FAMOUS Dun angus In Ishmmore.. These have upright stones on the
- outer edge
wanted to recreate irish with sport dance and culture.. mostly women coming over..
Brought in Brehan Law-can bring king to justice if he doesnt follow law - took presence over church law.. -Divorce is acceptable -women fought in battle and traned men.. -Any women could have any man father there child..-Women could take back pocessions if divorced
- MOST FAMOUS- hill of Tara in Co Meath
- -Royal site= seat of kings (sacred)- whoever holds is the king of Tara of the most high king.. Memorial tombstone on the top for those who fought in 1798
Carved for ceremonial purpose.. Faces carved in stone
Ophan scripts- latin based carving of lines through one central line...
If wrongfully accused..
People would sit outside of persons door and refuse there hospitality and refuse to eat...
This was an insult to the accuser..
- No prisons..
- -Weatleth is measured in cattle.. If u dont have enough to pay debt then family needs to step in..
Religion- had the Other world-> after death underground that was very close and easy for dead to go back and froth.. the Dead come out of the other world on OCTOBER 31 and mixes with populations (Oice Samain) Halloween.. people dress up so dead to revognize them
November 1st i all saints day or day of the dead
Syncretism- the prechrisitan ideas procreated by new religion or the combining of differnt beleifs.
The Tain (story)
Written by Monks in the 6th century.. Early church did not view women well because decendents of eve..
- -Argument started between Medb and King Ailiel.. fighting over who had more stuff- compared furntiture sheep and bull..
- - Jealously and pride..
Conchobar form ulster.. national hero mother was mortal women.. father was god.. 6 years old when started traiking .. and kills are the kids he goes to school iwth..- beautiful man who dies from ireland grear worrior has wierd spasms... kills everytone..
-both bulls die.. nothiner gained everything lost
- 5th century.. Not irish from britain.. Slave in ireland= sheepherder.. he left Britian because it felll awaya from the church.. slave for 7 years
- -prays 100 times a day..
Then goes back to britain on a ship with Pagans (not Christians)
Drea that he needs to go back to Irealdnd but the church will not let him... finally returns and dies..
#1 church in Ireland established by him was in Armagh
People made myths that St.partick came to differnt holy wells and spings.. Croach Patrick Mountain- so visitors will come there
A clan that has a chiefton for king..
- 3 differnt
- -Edgamatha in Chashel
- -Dal Cais in Munster
- -Ui Neil Ebcame Oneill
Most powerful family in the east.. claimed St. Patrick want to armagh .. Gave the family prestige.. ... Many tourists bring in lost of money..
- -family fought and seperated.. North = Armagh
- South= claimed hill of Tara...
everyone claims share of St. patrick
- From kildare.. very powerful women in the church.. Feast day is Feb 1st.. Founder of monestary in kildar.. in the 6th century...
- -associated with healing and nature
- -talks to animals
there was a goddess named brigid (celtic goddess) may have be her
Came from a family who was the keeper of the shrine of celtics
-Childern weave crosses on her day
6th century decedent of nothern Ui Neil
- -In control of Armagh
- - assoiciated with escape to iona (tiny island in Scottland...) beacuse of copywrite case
- -Wanted to copy a book. king said now.. he did it anyway and the king go mad.. n and S fought Ui neil fought in battle over this
Goes to Iona with 12 others.. make settelment..
Creators of WHITE MARTYDOM- live along with little inhibants..
people started to move to iona sooo they Left
- Greatest traveling saint.. established many monestaries.. lived off begging
BOBBIO- most famous monestary ing ITALY esablished by him
- Escaping the world to be isolated monks and get away from population...
- -Island of INISH MURRAY- famlous distant from mainland
- -KELLIG MICHAEL- huge rock island extreme edge- choose discomfornt life.. with Behive huts
The Book of Kells
- - housed in training college in dublin
- -illiminated the bible.. do not know when or where it was created..
Theory states the 8th century... and made in IONA.. the monks fleeing the vikings raid took the book untill the 17th century and brought to trinity college..
All sourss of creatures and beautiful picutes.. very small
- in the 1970s FISHABLE ST
- -Ireland had no laws in place when ancient artifacts were found
- -the government and the national history museum stepped in but did nothing to preserve the site.
- -People were going thru the piles not marked up to find ancient artifacts
- * single most important king in Irish history.. changed power forever in Enland.
- - belonged to the Dál gCais
Inaugrated after brother Mathgamain assasination..
-Brian first made himself King of Munster
, then subjugated Leinster
, making himself ruler of the south of Ireland.
-"emporer of the irsh"
-Annoted by the bishop in 1095 at armaugh
-Battle at Clontarf on good friday is where he was killed at 73.. although some dates say different..
- he was brought to the monestary of Armaugh to be buried
-After his death turmoil breaks out in ireland and everyone is fighting for the high kingship.
-Many Irish annals state that Brian was in his 88th year when he fell in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.
Tigernam Va ruairic
1100s fought for high kingship in ireland..
-Rorry and Tigernam form allience against dermet
- - Dermot finds the king of england Henry II to ask for help.. Henry says no
- -Some Normans come to help .. 3 Ships arrive in Wexford.. to fight.. Dermot gives the Normans Wexford as a thank you.. in 1169
King Henry appoints Becket A bishop in england because hes very unconfrontational.. Then argues on issues Henry tries to appoin.. sends nights to Kill him..
--Kills him in Church of Cantebary..
-Pope get angry with Henry for this.. and the Papcy
Henry the II
- -An Anglo norman decendent of William the Conquer.
- Dermet asks him for help fighting rory and Tigernam..
-Henry refuese b/c he has England to worry about
-1171 Pope asks king henry to bring Church of Ireland Back together he does this because of the Becket affair in 1170
- -1185 Appoints Son john to oversea Irish affairs.. Cannot be king in stad called Dominous Hibernae " LORD OF IRELAND"
- -Failure of King henry.. Misreated everone
- --later became king of england..
- -Norman Arrived in 1170
- -Dermet cut deal and says if he supports dermet the he can have his daughers hand in marriage.. and the kingship when he dies
- Helps take over Rory's dublin
Treaty of Windsor
-Henry gives Rory kingship of Ireland no in habited by normans..
-Except lenster and Waterford
England was over populated.. People were hungry for land and Ireland had a lot..
-It was not very fertile.. and hard to fight because of Mountians and Boggs
-England land Grid pattern
Irish peasent farmers who are bound to soil...
- -work side by side withe English Peasent soldiers.
- -english peasent soldiers have more rights
pale (Area most heavily populated in dublin)
Beyond the Pale= everything that is beyond where the Irish live
- - 2 Nobel families
- -->fitzgibbons of kildar and desmond
- -->Bulter of Ormond
- -Henry the 7 named poining
- -This law said that the irish parliament could not conviene without permission of English king
-Cannot bass laws without English consent..
Protest english.. Back door
-Daughter of Henry the 8th
- -establishing of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor.
- - Elizabeth became famous for her virginity,
-Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era 16th century
James FitMaurice Fitzgerald
Lead revolt against Queen Elizabeth...
- -Ask Pope and King of Spain to help..
- -Troops paid for by Popt
Elizebeth captured and executed all the nobels.. by harshing killings..
-Elizabeth gave land to new people coming in- plantations develop
King James i of england and IV of scot
- Ruled after Queen elizebeth
- -James began the Plantation of Ulster and of North
- -Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such
- as William Shakespeare,
Of the NORTH (great o'neil
- - 2nd earl of tyrone
- -wins big battel of yollowford..
- 2nd spanish armada and revolts break out..
"flight of the Earls" = hugh oneil and the the famous leaders leave ireland
james is now unopposed..
- -In the 700s, pressure on land in Scandanavia had forced many nobles and warriors to seek landin ireland
- -Noblemen with little to lose began to gather together groups of warriors and go down the coast pillaging settlements. They sold their booty for money, much like the black markets of today, and this became the means of
- making their living.
- -being pagans, the Vikings did not have any respect for
- Christian symbols and sites.
- -the next 30-40 years, the Vikings engaged in hit-and-run raids
- -Stated to set up camps
- -The southern Uí Néill were routed by the Vikings when they attempted todrive them out. By the end, many of the monks themselves had taken to fighting the
- Vikings moved their power base to the Isle of Man and to the growing
- territory that the
- Vikings were carving out of Anglo-Saxon England. Other Viking towns
- had also beendefeated, for example Cork in 848, Vadrefjord [Waterford] in 864 and
- Youghal in 866.
2nd viking raid
- -A second phase of raiding began in 914, with the arrival of a large fleet of Viking ships in Waterford harbour. They promptly re-captured their settlement of from which the Irish had expelled the first Vikings half a century earlier.
- -In 917, the Vikings re-captured the settlement of Dubhlinn
- -by 950, theVikings had stopped raiding in Ireland and developed instead as traders and settled in the lands around their towns.
- -dto the kings of the Uí Néill as the first High Kings of Ireland, but it seems unlikelythat this in reality referred to anything more than an aspiration.
- -After 940, a bitterpower struggle broke out between the royal families of the Uí Néill.
- -The Uí Néill had gone from being an
- obscure people in western Ireland to the rulers or controllers of most of northern and eastern Ireland.