Card Set Information
RNA info and Protein Synthesis
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
type of RNA that makes-up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA (tRNA)
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
process in which part of a nucleotic sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands in transcription
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
interveing sequence of DNA;does not code for a protein
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Differences between DNA and RNA
RNA- single stranded, has uracil instead of thymine, has sugar ribose instead of sugar deoxyribose
DNA- double stranded, has thymine instead of uracil, has sugar deoxyribose instead of sugar ribose
Genetic information is altered when changes in the DNA sequence called________ occur.
Changes in the DNA sequence in a single gene are...
The DNA sequence of an entire chromosome is affected by a...
What occurs during the process of translation?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
What is the one job in which most RNA molecules are involved?
Many RNA molecules from eukaryotic genes have sections, called____before they become functional. The remaining pieces, called _____ are spliced together.
What is an explanation for why some RNA molecules are cut and spliced?
-Making it possible for a single gene to produce several forms of RNA
Proteins are made by joining _____into long chains called polypeptides
What is the number of possible 3-base codons?
Where does translation take place?
duplication- produce extra copies of a chromosome
deletion- involve the loss of all or part of a chromosome
inversion- reverse the direction of parts of chromosomes
translocation- occur when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.
Many proteins are _____, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.
BLUEPRINT, Goes to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
MASTER PLAN, remains in the nucleus