Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis
2012-02-12 20:59:46

RNA info and Protein Synthesis
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  1. gene
    sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  2. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
  3. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    type of RNA that makes-up the major part of ribosomes
  4. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  5. transcription
    process in which part of a nucleotic sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  6. RNA polymerase
    enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands in transcription
  7. promoter
    region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
  8. intron
    interveing sequence of DNA;does not code for a protein
  9. exon
    expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
  10. codon
    three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
  11. translation
    decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
  12. anticodon
    group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
  13. mutation
    change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
  14. point mutation
    mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
  15. frameshift mutation
    mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
  16. polyploidy
    condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
  17. Differences between DNA and RNA
    RNA- single stranded, has uracil instead of thymine, has sugar ribose instead of sugar deoxyribose

    DNA- double stranded, has thymine instead of uracil, has sugar deoxyribose instead of sugar ribose
  18. Genetic information is altered when changes in the DNA sequence called________ occur.
  19. Changes in the DNA sequence in a single gene are...
    gene mutation
  20. The DNA sequence of an entire chromosome is affected by a...
    chromosomal mutations
  21. What occurs during the process of translation?
    The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
  22. What is the one job in which most RNA molecules are involved?
    Protein synthesis
  23. Many RNA molecules from eukaryotic genes have sections, called____before they become functional. The remaining pieces, called _____ are spliced together.
    introns, exons
  24. What is an explanation for why some RNA molecules are cut and spliced?
    -Making it possible for a single gene to produce several forms of RNA
  25. Proteins are made by joining _____into long chains called polypeptides
    amino acids
  26. What is the number of possible 3-base codons?
  27. Where does translation take place?
  28. duplication- produce extra copies of a chromosome
  29. deletion- involve the loss of all or part of a chromosome
  30. inversion- reverse the direction of parts of chromosomes
  31. translocation- occur when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.
  32. Many proteins are _____, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.
  33. RNA
    BLUEPRINT, Goes to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  34. DNA
    MASTER PLAN, remains in the nucleus
  35. "Start" codon