Cognitive Neurology

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Cognitive Neurology
2012-09-09 07:05:49
Cognitive Neurology

Disorders of Cognitive Function and Cortical Lesions
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  1. Ideational Apraxiia
    Impairment in the ordering of tasks

    Lesion: Diffuse cortical (e.g. dementias)
  2. Limb Kinetic Apraxia
    Imprescision with fine finger / hand tasks

    Lesion: Left somatosensory
  3. Ideomotor Apraxia
    Unable to discriminate between or identify the movements of others

    Left Inferior Parietal Lobule
  4. Apraxia
    An acquired deficit in a learned skill in which there is an inability to perform a task event though the person is physically capable of doing so.
  5. Agnosia
    Loss of the ability to recognize something.
  6. Broca's Aphasia
    Expressive aphasia in which output is indecipherable.

    • Comprehension is intact
    • Cannot name
    • Cannot repeat

    Lesion: ¡Broca’s Area (Brodman’s 44,45, Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Pars Triangularis and Opercularis)
  7. Wernike's Aphasia
    Receptive Aphasia in which speech is fluid but nonsensical causes by an impairment in comprehension

    • Output is intact
    • Cannot name
    • Cannot repeat
    • Cannot follow commands

    Lesion: Wernike’s Area (Brodman’s 22, Superior Temporal Gyrus)
  8. Global Aphasia
    Combined Expressive and Receptive Aphasia

    • Output is non-fluent
    • Input is impaired
    • Cannot repeat
    • Cannot name

    Lesion: Perisylvian Region affecting both Wernike’s and Broca’s Areas (e.g. large lesions with other deficits)
  9. Conductive Aphasia
    An aphasia characterized by impaired repetition

    • Output is intact
    • Input is intact
    • Cannot repeat

    • Lesion: Fibers connecting Wernike’s and Broca’s (Arcuate
    • Fasciculus)
  10. Transcortical Aphasia
    • May be Transcortival Motor, Sensory, or Mixed
    • Characteristic feature is preserved repetition

    • Output is variable
    • Input is variable
    • Can Repeat

    • Lesion:
    • - TC Motor - SMA
    • - TC Sensory – Sylvian Tip
    • - TC Mixed - Watershed
  11. Alexia without Agraphia
    aka Pure Alexia

    Lesions: Dominant Hemisphere, Medial Occipital Lobe and Splenium of the CC or Periventricular White Matter (e.g. PCA infarction)

    Also a/w a right homonymous hemianopsia and color anomia.
  12. Anton's Syndrome
    Visual Anosognosia (denial of neurologic deficit) and confabulation seen in patients with cortical visual loss

    Thought to develop from damage to Primary Visual Cortex with preservation of Association Cortex

    • Described following Stroke, PRES, Eclampsia, and
    • Angiography
  13. Anosognosia
    Denial of a deficit
  14. Charles Bonnet Syndrome
    Formed, visual hallucinations with great detail, often involving people or things they know with retained insight into the hallucination
  15. Alexia with Agraphia
    Inability to read or right

    Lesions of the dominant hemisphere in the Angular Gyrus
  16. Gerstmann's Syndrome
    • Combination of:
    • - Finger Agnosia: cannot recognize their finger
    • - Agraphia
    • - Acalculia
    • - Right-left Confusion

    Lesion: Dominant hemisphere, angular gyrus
  17. Balint's Syndrome
    • Triad of::
    • - Simultagnosia: nability to perceive simultaneous visual
    • - Optic Ataxia: unable to guide hands to objects with eyes
    • - Optic Apraxia: inability to carry out familiar movements on command

    Leison: bilateral occipitoparietal lobes (e.g. hypoperfusion or Alzheimer’s)
  18. Witzelshultz
    Inappropriate laughter

    Lesion: orbitofrontal

    “when you find something witty or funny that sucks”
  19. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    • Description:
    • - Hypersexual
    • - Hyperoral
    • - Placid

    Lesion: Bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. HSV)
  20. Geschwind Syndrome
    • Triad of:
    • - Hyposexuality
    • - Hyperreligiousity
    • - Hyperphagia

    Interictal phenomenon of medial temporal lobe epilepsy
  21. Korsakoff's Psychosis
    Description: Amnesia with Confabulation

    Lesion: Mammillary Bodies
  22. Prosopagnosia
    Inability to recognize familiar faces

    Lesion: Bilateral inferior occipitotemporal

    “can’t recognize some poor sap’s face”
  23. Foster-Kennedy Syndrome
    • Triad of:
    • - Ipsilateral anosmia
    • - Ipsilateral optic atrophy
    • - Contralateral Papilledema

    Classically associated with a mass involving the sphenoid wing or olfactory groove
  24. Capgras Syndrome
    Delusion that people you know have been replaced byimposters
  25. Fregoli Syndrome
    Delusion in which strangers are identified as familiar
  26. Ganser Syndrome
    Syndrome of approximate answers
  27. Alien Hand Syndrome
    Inability to recognize one’s own hand
  28. Left Side Functions
    Language and Praxis
  29. Right Side Functions
    • Spatial Representation
    • Prosody
    • Attention
  30. Aphemia
    Expressive aphasia that impairs the ability to speak while preserving the ability to write
  31. Medial Frontal Lobe Syndrome
    • "Akinetic Mutism"
    • - Minimal spontaneous action or speech
    • - Incontinence
    • - Abulia
  32. Orbital Frontal Lobe Syndrome
    • Disinhibited
    • - Impulsive
    • - Emotionally Labile
    • - Hypersexual
    • - Witzelschultz
  33. Dorsolateral Frontal Lobe Syndrome
    • Disorganized
    • - Perservative
    • - Impaired digit span
  34. Hemi-Achromatopsia
    Impaired ability to process colors

    Ventro-medial occipital lobe

    a/w a superior quadrantanopsia