BI 102 ch 23

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BI 102 ch 23
2012-02-12 17:00:45
Biology 102

test 1
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  1. absorption
    movement of nutrient molecules from the gut into the body's internal environment
  2. digestion
    breakdown of food into smaller bits or molecules
  3. elimination
    expulsion of unabsorbed material from the digextive tract
  4. ghrelin
    molecule made in the stomach and brain that increases appetite
  5. ingestion
    taking food into digestive system
  6. leptin
    molecule made by adipose cells that suppresses appetite
  7. chemical digestion
    breakdown of food molecules into smaller subunits by enzymes
  8. enamel
    hard material covering exposed surface of teeth
  9. esophagus
    muscular tube between the throat and stomach
  10. mechanical digestion
    breaking of food into smaller pieces by mechanical processes such as chewing
  11. salivary amylase
    enzyme in saliva that begins carbohydrate digestion by breaking starch into disaccharides
  12. sphincter
    ring of muscle that controls passage through a tubular organ or body opening
  13. bile
    mix salts, pigments, and cholesterol produced by the liver; aids in fat digestion
  14. chyme
    mix of food and gastric fluid
  15. feces
    unabsorbed food material and cellular waste that is produced by digestion
  16. gallbladder
    organ that receieves bile from the liver and expels it into the small intestine
  17. gastric fluid
    fluid secreted by the stomach lining; contains enzymes, acid, and mucus
  18. large intestine
    organ that receives digestive waste from the small intestine and concentrates it as feces
  19. liver
    organ that produces bile, stores glycogen and detoxifies many substances
  20. microvilli
    thin projections that increase the surface area of brush border cells
  21. pancreas
    organ that secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine and hormones into the blood
  22. small intestine
    longest portion of the digestive tract, and the site of most digestion and absorption
  23. stomacg
    muscular organ that mixes food with gastric fluid that it secretes
  24. villi
    multicelled projections from the lining of the small intestine
  25. appendix
    wormlike projection from the first part ofthe large intestine
  26. essential fatty acids
    fatty acids that the body cannot make and must obtain from the diet
  27. rectum
    portion of the large intestine that stores feces until they are expelled
  28. essential amino acid
    amino acid that the body cannot make and must obtain from food
  29. mineral
    inorganic substance that is required in small amounts for normal metabolism
  30. vitamin
    organic substance required in small amounts for normal metabolism
  31. body mass index
    formula used to determine a healthy weight based on height
  32. kidney
    organ that filters blood and forms urine
  33. ureter
    tube that carries urine from a kidney to the bladder
  34. urethra
    tube through which urine from the bladder flows out of the body
  35. urinary bladder
    hollow, muscular organ that stores urine
  36. urinary system
    organ system that filters blood, and forms, stores, and expels urine
  37. urine
    mix of water and soluble wastes formed and excreted by the urinary system
  38. antidiuretic hormone
    hormone produced by the pituitary gland; increases water reabsorption by the kidney
  39. filteration
    blood pressure forces water and small solutes but not blood cells or proteins, out across the walls of capillaries
  40. nephron
    kidney tubule and associated capillaries; filters blood and forms urine
  41. reabsorbtion
    water and solutes enter capillaries
  42. tubular secretion
    substances are moved out of capillaries and into kidney tubules
  43. anorexia
    a disorder in which a person does not eat enough to maintain a healthy weight, dispite having access to food
  44. kidney dialysis
    procedure used to cleanse blood and restore proper solute concentrations in a person with impaired kidney function
  45. a digestive system functions in ___
    absorbing nutrients
  46. protein digestion begins in the ___
  47. digestion is completed and most nutrients are absorbed in the ___
    small intestine
  48. bile has roles in ___ digestion and absorption
  49. most water that enters the gut is absorbed across the lining of the ___
    small intestine
  50. can vitamin C be stored in body fat?
  51. iron is an example of a ___
  52. urea forms as a breakdown product of ___
  53. filtration moves ___ into kidney tubules
  54. water loss triggers a ___ in ADH secretion
  55. kidneys return water and small solutes to the blood by the process of ___
  56. kidneys adjust the blood acidity by increasing or decreasing the ___ of H+