Biology Midterm

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soccer6
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134722
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Biology Midterm
Updated:
2012-02-12 17:01:39
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Biology Midterm 13 12
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Review for Science Midterm- 2/13/12
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  1. Why might spontaneous reaction occur spontaneously?
    Because they don't need any activation Energy to get them started.
  2. What is water's molecule structure?
    single most abundant compound in living cells. 2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen.
  3. Species
    A group of similar organisms that breed to fertile offspring.
  4. Community
    Groups of diffferent populations that live in the same area.
  5. Population
    Group of species that live in the same area.
  6. Cell Wall's Function
    Provides support and protection to the organism.
  7. Cell Membrane's Function
    Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provide protection and support to the cell.
  8. Hetrotroph
    Meet their energy requirements by consuming food. By either eating plants(autotrophs) or by eating other animals. (hetrotroph)
  9. Nucleus' Function
    Contains DNA and can send encoded instructions to organelles for particular things.
  10. Alcoholic Fermentation
    When/where does this occur?
    When O2 is absent and in yeasts and bacteria.
  11. Difference between plant and animal cells.
    Plants and animals are the same except plants have chloroplasts and vacuoles and animal cells don't.
  12. Difference between prokarotic and eukaryotic cells.
    • Pro-
    • small, simple, primitive, no organelles, no nucleus.
    • Euk-
    • large, complex, nucleus, organelles.
  13. Contents of the Nucleus
    DNA, nuclear envelope, nucleolus
  14. Light-dependent Reactions
    Products and Reactants
    • Reactants- H2O, light Energy, ADP and NADP+
    • Products- ATP, NADPH, O2.
  15. Autotrophs- 2 types
    Plants and algae
  16. Omnivore
    An organism that eats both plants and meat.
  17. Autotroph
    Organism that can make their own food.
  18. Detritvore
    Organism that feeds off of dead matter.
  19. Water's polarity
    makes it attracted to other water molecules as well as any other substance that have charges in them. Water has positively and negatively charged ends. Hydrogen is positive and oxygen is negative.
  20. Carbohydrate's Function and Monomer
    • Function- main energy source of living things.
    • Monomer- monosaccharide and sugar.
  21. Decomposer
    Organism that breakdown organic matter. Example bacteria and fungi.
  22. What organism is responsible for nitrogen fixation?
    Bacteria
  23. Where is the Energy stored in ATP?
    In the bond between the 2 and 3 phosphate group.
  24. Light-dependent reactions-
    Where do they take place?
    In the Thylakoid Membranes
  25. Light-independent reactions-
    Where do they take place?
    In the Stroma
  26. How do autotrophs create carbohydrates?
    By the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
  27. Glycolysis-
    Reactants and Products
    • Reactants: Glucose, NAD+, ATP
    • Products:ATP, NADH
  28. Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain-
    Reactants and Products
    • Reactants: O2, Pyruvic Acids, NADH, FADH2
    • Products: CO2 and H2O.
  29. Cytoskeleton's Function
    It is a network of protein filaments that support the cell, help maintain shape and are involved in movement.
  30. Lactic Acid Fermentation:
    When/Where does this occur?
    when O2 is absent and in muscles
  31. Biosphere
    The combined portion of the planet in which all life exists, including water, land and air.
  32. Organization of groups in an ecosystem.
    • 1st: Species
    • 2nd: Population
    • 3rd: Community
    • 4th: Biosphere
  33. Herbivore
    An organism that only eats plants.
  34. Carnivore
    An organism that only eats meat.
  35. Homeostasis
    The process of maintaining and internal balance.
  36. Lipid's Function
    They're used in cell membranes, water proof covering plants. They're also used as an excess energy storage.
  37. Enzymes Function.
    What are they also known as?
    They speed up chemical reactions and lowers the activation energy. They are also known as catalysts.
  38. Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
    Reactants and products
    • Reactants: ATP and NADPH and CO2
    • Products: Glucose
  39. How is the energy released in ATP.
    It is released when the bond between the 2 and 3 phosphate group is broken.
  40. High energy Electron Carriers of Cellular Respiration
    NADH and FADH2
  41. Protein's Function
    they act as enzymes, they regulate cell functions, they form bone and muscle, they transport substances, they fight diseases.
  42. Microtubule's Function
    They maintain cell shape, form the miotic spindle during cell division and from centrioles which help organize cell division.
  43. Microfilament's Function
    They support the cell and is involved in movment.
  44. Golgi Appartus's Function
    Provides additional modifications to proteins, then sorts and packages proteins before secreation from the cell.
  45. Vacuole's Function
    Allows the plant to support heavy structures like leaves and flowers and stores water, salt, proteins and/or carbohydrates.
  46. Ribosome's Function
    They create proteins, assemble cellular proteins.
  47. Endoplasmic Reticulum's (ER) Function
    Internal membrane system, it is the site where lipid componets of the cell membrane are assembled along with proteins and other materials which the cell will export.
  48. Nucleic Acid's Function
    To store and transmit genetic information.
  49. Mitochondria's Function
    Convert chemical energy stored in food to high-energy compounds which are more convient for the cell to use.
  50. Cellular Respiration-
    2 different stages and where do they take place?
    • Glycolysis-cytoplasm
    • Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain- mitochondria

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