A&P Ch3

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Cascio
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134732
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A&P Ch3
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2012-02-12 17:24:52
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AAOS Paramedic
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Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. Accetabulum
    The socket in the ball-and-socket joint that connects the pelvic girdle and the lower extremity.
  2. Acromioclavacular (AC) joint
    The point at which the clavicle attaches to the acromion process
  3. Aveolar ridge
    the ridges between the teeth, which are covered with thickened connective tissue and epithelium
  4. Aleoli
    Small pits or cavities, such as the sockets for the teeth or air sacs in the lungs
  5. Anulus Fibrosus
    A ring of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue that is part of the intervertebral disk
  6. Appendicular skeleton
    The upper and lower extremities and the girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton
  7. Appositional growth
    The formation of the new bone on the surface of bone
  8. Atlanto-occipital joint
    The location where the atlas articulates with the occipital condyles
  9. Atlas
    The first cervical vertebra (C1), which provides support for the head
  10. Auditory ossicles
    The bones that function in thehearing and are located deep within the cavities of the temporal bone
  11. Axial skeleton
    The portion of the skeleton that includes the torso
  12. Axis
    The second cervical vertebra, the point that allows the head to turn
  13. Battle's sign
    Bruising over the mastoid process, ususally from a bastilar skull fracture
  14. Blowout marrow
    The substance located within the medullary cavity of a bone that consists of adipose tissue (yellow marrow) or red-blood-producing cells in bones in the axial skeleton and girdles (red marrow)
  15. Bruxism
    Grinding together of the upper and lower teeth
  16. Bulding disk
    A circumferential balloning od an intact intervertebral disk
  17. Callus
    The zone of repair in which a mass of exudates and connective tissue forms around a break in a bone and converts to bone during healing
  18. Canaliculi
    A minute canal in a bone
  19. Cancellous bone
    Bone that is made up of a lacy network of bony rods called tubeculae
  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTF)
    Compression of the median nerve within the carpal canal at the wrist
  21. Cartilage
    Plates of shiny connective tissue that are lubricated by synovial fluid to provide a slippery surface over which bones may move freely
  22. Central disk herniation
    The most serious disk rupture that occurs when nuclear material protrudes straight back into the spinal cord, possibly resulting in permanent loss of bladder and bowel control
  23. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    The fluid that bathes and provides hydraulic cushioning to the brain and spinal cord
  24. Chrondroblast
    A cell that produces cartilage
  25. Clavicle
    The collarbone, which is located on the anterior chest and is an integral part of the shoulder girdle
  26. Closed fracture
    A fracture in which the bone ends have not been exposed by a break through the skin
  27. Coccyx
    The last four/five vertebrae, which are fused together to form the tailbone
  28. Comminuted fracture
    A fracture in which the bone end is fragmented
  29. Compact bone
    Bone that is mostly solid, with few spaces.
  30. Compression fracture
    A frature in which the bone collapses
  31. Coronal suture
    the point where the parietal bones join together with the frontal bone
  32. Costochondritis
    Inflammation of the costocartilage, which attaches the ribs to the sternum
  33. Cranial Vault
    The bones tha encase and protect the brain, including the parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
  34. Crepitus
    A grinding sound or sensation
  35. Cribriform plate
    A horizontal bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity
  36. Crista galli
    A prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa to which the meninges are attached
  37. Crown
    The part of a tooth that is external to the gum
  38. Cusp
    Point at the top of a tooth
  39. Degenerative disk disease
    A progressive form of arthritis that causes deterioration of the intervertebral disk
  40. Dentin
    The principle mass of the tooth, which is made up of a material that is much more dense and stronger than bone
  41. Diaphysis
    The shaft of a long bone
  42. Dwarfism
    A state of abnormally small bone
  43. Endochrondral growth
    the growth of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate, which is eventually replaced by bone
  44. Endosteum
    The lining of the innersurfaces of a long bone
  45. Epicondylitis
    The shaft of the long bone
  46. External auditory meatus
    An opening in the temporal bone that contains the ear canal
  47. Facet
    A smooth, flat circumscribed anatomic surface of a bone
  48. Facial nerve
    the seventh pair of cranial nerves that supply sensory and motor nerve functions to the face and jaw
  49. Femur
    the long bone in the thigh
  50. Fibroblast
    A cell that secretes protiens and collagen to the form connective tissue between brkoen bone
  51. Fibula
    The long bone on the posterior surface of the lower leg
  52. Flat bone
    Type of bone that is relitively thin and flattened
  53. Fontantels
    The soft spots in the skull of a newborn and infant where the sutures of the skull have not yet grown together
  54. Foramen magnum
    the large opening at the bottom of the skull through which the brain connects with the spinal cord
  55. Foramina
    Small openings, perforations, or orifices in the bones of the cranial vault
  56. Gigantism
    A state of bony overgrowth
  57. Gingiva
    The gums; connective tissue that covers the alveor ridge
  58. Girdles
    the bonybelts that attach the extremities to the axial skeleton
  59. Glenoid fossa
    The part of the scapula that forms the socket in the ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder
  60. gliding joint
    A joint where the opposing surfaces of the bone glide over each other to articulate
  61. Greenstick fracture
    An incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent and olny the outer arc of the bend is broken
  62. Hard palate
    The bony anterior part of the palate, which form the roof of the mouth
  63. Havesian system
    A unt of compact bone consisting of a tube (haverstian canal) with the laminae of the bone that surrounds it
  64. Herniated disk
    A tear in the anulus fibrosus the results in leakage of the nucleus pulposus, most commonly against exiting nerve roots
  65. Humerus
    The bone of the arm
  66. Hydroxyapatite
    A mineral compound containing calcium and phosphate that, along with collagen, comprises the structural element of bone
  67. Hyoid bone
    A bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and it's muscles
  68. Impacted fractue
    A fracture in which one fragmented bone end in wedged into the other fragmented bone end
  69. Intervertebral disk
    A mass of fibrocartilage between each vertebral body of the spine, composed of the anulus fibrosus and the nucleus pilposus
  70. Intervertebral foramen
    The opening between each vertebra through which the spinal (peripheral) nerves pass from the spinal cord
  71. Joint
    The point where two or more bones come together, allowing movement to occur
  72. Kyphosis
    An excessivwly concave thoracic curve. Also called hump back
  73. Iacuna
    one of the minute cavities in bone or cartilage occupied by osteocytes
  74. Lambdoid suture
    The point where the occipital bones attach to the parietal bones
  75. Iamellae
    Thin sheets or layers into which bone tissue is organized
  76. Lateral malleoulus
    An enlargement of the distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint
  77. Ligaments
    though whitew bands of tissue that bind bones together
  78. Long bones
    Type of bone that is longer than it is wide
  79. Lordosis
    An exaggerated lumbar curve or hollow back
  80. Mandible
    The movable lower jaw bone
  81. Mastoid Process
    A cone-shaped section of bone at the base of the temporal bone
  82. Mastoiditis
    A servere infection involving the air cells of the mastoid process
  83. Medial mallcoulus
    The distal end of the tibia, which forms the medual side of the ankle joint
  84. Medullary cavity
    The internal cavity of the diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow
  85. Meniges
    The three laters of membranes, the dura, arachnoid, and the pia, that surround the brain
  86. Meracarpal bones
    The bones that form the hand
  87. Metaphysis
    The area of a long bone where the diaphysis and epiphysis converge. The epiphyseal plate in located here
  88. Nasal septum
    The separation berween the right and left nostrils
  89. Nasal cavity
    The chamber inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranuim and the roof of the mouth
  90. Nucleus pulposus
    The gelatinous mass that makes up the center of each intervetebral disk
  91. Oblique fracture
    A fractue that forms an angle to the shaft of the bone
  92. Occipital condyles
    Articular surface on the occipital bone where the skull articulates with the atlas on the vertebral column
  93. Olfactory bulb
    The cranial nerve for smell
  94. Open fracture
    A fractue in which a bone end has penetrated the skin; also called a compound fracture
  95. Orbit
    Bony cavity in the frontal skull that encloses and protects the eye
  96. Ossicles
    the three small bones in the middle ear; the malleus, incus, and staples
  97. Osteoblast
    A bone-forming cell
  98. Osteoclasts
    Large, multinucleated cells that dissolve bone tissue and play a major role in bone remodeling
  99. Ostrocyte
    An osteoblast that becomes surrounded by bony matrix
  100. Ostrogenesis Imperfecta
    A genetic disorder in which the patient lacks sufficient collagen for proper strength of the bones
  101. Osteomalacia
    An abnormal softening of bones because of a loss of calcium
  102. Osteomyelitis
    An inflammation of the bone usually resulting from bacterial infection
  103. Osteon
    Unit withina compact bone in which blood vessels are located; also called the haversain system
  104. Ostroporosis
    A reduction in the actual quantity of bony tissue
  105. Palatine bone
    An irregularly shaped bone found in the posteroir part of the nasal cavity
  106. Paranasal sinuses
    the sinuses, or hollowed, sections of bone in the front of the head, which are lined with mucous membrane and drain into the nasal cavity
  107. Patella
    The kneecap
  108. Pedicle
    The foot of each vertebra in the vertebral arch
  109. Pelvis
    The attachment of the lower extremities to the body consisting of the sacrum and two pelvic bones
  110. Periodontal membrane
    the membrane that attached the teeth to the alveolar bone
  111. Periosteum
    the membrane, made up of a double layer of connective tissue, that covers all bones, except the articular surfaces
  112. Phalanges
    The small bones of the digits of the fingers and toes
  113. Physis
    The major sire of bone elongation, located just proximal to the bone ends. Also called the growth plate
  114. Pituitary gland
    An endocrine gland, located in the sella turcica of the brain, responsible for directly or indirectly affecting all bodily functions
  115. Palntar fascitis
    An irritation of the tough band of connective tissue extending from the calcaneis to the proximal phalange of each toe
  116. Pulp
    Soft tissue within the tooth
  117. Rami
    The posterior vertical parts of the lower jaw that join the mandible
  118. Rickets
    A disease casused by the vitamin D deficiency
  119. Sacrum
    the five sacral vertebrae, which are fused together to form the posterior portion of the plevic structure.
  120. Saddle joint
    Two saddle-shaped articulating surfaces oriented at right angles to each other so that complementary surfaces articulate with each other, such as is the case with the thumb
  121. Sagittal suture
    The point of the skull where the patietal bones join toghether
  122. Scapula
    The triangular shaped bone that comprises the shoulder blade, which is an integral component of the shoulder girdle
  123. Scoliosis
    An abnormal bending of the spine to the side
  124. Sella Turcica
    A depression in the middle of the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
  125. Short bone
    Type of bone that is as broad as it is long
  126. Shoulder girdle
    The attachment point of the upper extremity to the body, consisting od the scapula and clavicle
  127. Shoulder joint
    A Ball-and-socket joint consisting of the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa
  128. Sinusitis
    An inflamation of the patanasal sinuses
  129. Skull
    The structure at the top of the axial skeleton that houses the brain and consists of the 28 bones that comprise the auditoy ossicles, the cranuim, and the face
  130. Spiral fracture
    A fracture that twists around the shaft of a bone
  131. Sternum
    The breastbone in the center of the anterior chest
  132. Styloid process
    Several long, slender, and pointed bones that project downward and forward from the temporal bone. Also, the small bony protrusion to which the logaments of the wrist are attached
  133. Sutures
    Attachment points in the skull where the cranial bones join together
  134. Synovial fluid
    The transparent viscous lubricating fluid sectreted by the synovial membrane in an articulation
  135. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
    The joint berween the temporal bone and the posterior condyte that allows for movements of the mandible
  136. Tendons
    Specialized tough cords or bands of dense white connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones
  137. Tibia
    The long bone on the anterior surface of the leg.
  138. Tinnitus
    A ringing in the ears
  139. Trabeculae
    Bony rods that make up cancellous bone and are oriented to increase weight-bearing capacity of long bones
  140. Transverse fracture
    A fracture straight across the shaft of a bone
  141. Trismus
    Spasm of the muscles of chewing
  142. Vertebral arch
    The posteriot portion of a vertebra, which contains the bony processes, facets, and pedicles
  143. Vertebral foramen
    A hole through which spinal nerves pass from the spinal cord
  144. Zygomatic arch
    The bone that extends along the front of the skull below the orbit

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