A&P Ch4

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  1. Achilles Tendon
    The strong tendon that joins the muscles in the posterior leg to the calcaneus
  2. Actin myofilament
    A cellular protein found in myofilaments that is active in muscular contractions, cellular movement and maintenance of cell shape
  3. Action potential
    A change in electrical potential that occurs when a cell or tissue has been activated by a stimulus
  4. Adductor brevis
    The short muscle that adducts the thigh
  5. Adductor longus
    The long muscle that adducts the hip
  6. Anal triangle
    The area within the pelvis that contains the anus
  7. Antagonists
    Muscles working in oppoistion to each other
  8. Bell's Palsy
    A condition caised by damage, either through trauma or infection, to the facial nerve, resulting in an inability to move the facial muscles on the affected side
  9. Belly
    the large portion of muscle between the origin and the insertion
  10. Biceps femoris
    Located in the posterior compartment of the leg, it flexes and laterally rotates the knee and extends the hip
  11. Calmodulin
    An intracelluar protein that calcuim binds to, resulting in muscle contraction
  12. Cardiac muscle
    Muscle that is found only in the heart, providing the contractions needed to propel the blood through the circulator system
  13. Compartment
    An anatomic space within the body that is enclosed by fascia
  14. Compartment syndrome
    Accumulation of blood or fluid in an anatomic compartment, typically following trauma, resulting in compression of blood vessels and tissue damage secondary to ischemia and, if not recongnized and promptly treated, death of muscle and loss of limb
  15. Diaphragm
    A flattened dome-shaped muscle that is the main muscle of breathing, located at the base of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen
  16. Endomysium
    The delicate connective tissue surrounding individual muscular fibers
  17. Extensor muscles
    Groups of muscles that cause extension.
  18. Extracellular fluid
    Fluid outside of the cells
  19. Extraocular movements
    Movement of the eyes in various directions
  20. Fascia
    A loater of fibrous connective tissue outside the epimysium that seperates individual muscles
  21. Flexor Muscles
    Groups of muscles that cause flexion when contracted
  22. Gap junctions
    Conduction areas between cells (eg, in visceral smooth muscle) that interconnect individual muscle groups
  23. Hemoglobin
    An iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells, carries 97% of oxygen
  24. Insertion
    the end of a muscle that is attached to the bone that is undergoing the greatest movement
  25. Intercalated disks
    Branching fibers in cardiac muscle that allow action potentials to pass from cell to cell
  26. Intrensic automaticity
    The ability of a muscle to generate it's own electrical activity
  27. Lactic acid
    An organic acid that can lower the intercellular pH
  28. Motor neurons
    Specialized nerve cells that deliver an impulse to muscle cells, causing them to contract
  29. Multiunit smooth muscle
    one of the two types of smooth muscle, it is formed into sheets of muscle (as in the walls of blood vessels), small bundles of muscles (as in the iris of the eye), or single cells(as in the capsule of the spleen).
  30. Muscle
    Fibers that contract causing movement; three types of muscle are present in the body; skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
  31. Muscle Fasciculus
    A bundle of skeletal muscle cells bound together by connective tissue and forming one of the constituent elements of a muscle
  32. Myofibrils
    Threadlike structures that extend from one end of the muscle fiber to the other
  33. Myofilaments
    The individual protein filaments, conposed of either actin or myosin, that make up a myofibril
  34. Myoglobin
    An iron-containing red pigment, similar to hemoglobin that is found in muscle fibers
  35. Myosin myofilements
    A fibrous globulin of muscle that reacts with actin to form actomyosin
  36. Neuromuscular junction
    The junction between a motor netron and a muscle fiber. One type of a synapse
  37. Neurotransmutter
    A chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
  38. Origin
    The attachment of a muscle to the more stationary of two bones
  39. Oxygen debt
    A temporary osygen deficiency in muscles after strenuous exercise, characterized by heavy breathing until the muscles have been suppiles with sufficient oxygen
  40. Pectineus muscle
    a deep muscle of the medial compartment that adducts and internally rotates the shoulder
  41. Pectineus muscle
    A deep muscle of the medial compartment that adducts, flexes, and internally rotates the thigh
  42. Pectoralis major
    The largest muscle of the chest wall, it adducts and inernally rotates the shoulder
  43. Perimysium
    The connective tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers
  44. Perineum
    The area below the coccygeus and levator animuscles, which forms the floor of the pelvis
  45. Postsynaptic terminal
    the proximal end of the nerve fiber in the neuromuscular junction
  46. Presynaptic terminal
    The distal end of the nerve fiber in the neuromusclar junction
  47. Prime mover
    The muscle in a group of muscles that has the major role in movement
  48. Quadriceps formoris
    Muscle contained in the anterior compartment of the thigh that extends the knee when contracted
  49. Rectus abdominis
    the linear muscle of the midline of the abdomen
  50. Rotator cuff
    A special group of four mscles that forms a cap over the proximal humerus and ties the humerus to the scapula. It controls rotation at the shoulder joint
  51. Sarcolemma
    The thin transparent sheath surrounfing a striated muscle fiber
  52. Sarcomeres
    Any of the repeating strucural units of striated muscle fibrils
  53. Satcoplasmic reticulum
    A system of membranes that transport materials in muscle cells
  54. Sartorius muscle
    The longest muscle in the human body, it is located in the anterior compartment of the thigh and flexes both the hip and knee when it contracts
  55. Scalene muscles
    Muscles of respiration that elecate the first two ribs during inspiration
  56. Skeletal muscle
    Striated muscles that are under direct volitional control of the brain; also called voluntary muscles
  57. Sliding filament mechanism
    The movement of the myofilaments during contration of the muscle
  58. Smooth muscle
    Muscle that carries out much of the automatic work of the body, such as moving food through the digestive tract and dilating and constricting the pupils of the eye; also called involuntary muscle
  59. Synaptic cleft
    the space between nerves and muscles in the neuromuscular junction across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter
  60. Synergists
    Muscles that work together to accomplish a particular movement
  61. Tendons
    Tough, ropelike cords of fibours tissue that attach muscles to bones
  62. Thompson's Test
    A test used to evaluate the integrity of the achilles tendon for possible rupture
  63. Urogenital triangle
    The region within the pelvis that contains the structures of the urogenital system
  64. Visceral smooth muscle
    Sheets of muscle found in the digestive, reprodutive, and urinary tracts
  65. Whiplash
    A layman's term for traumatic soft-tissue injurt to the structures of the neck, associated with sudden flexation or extention
  66. Yergason's test
    Supination of the forearm against tesistance to evaluate whether a patient has bicipital tendinitis
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A&P Ch4
Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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