Foodchem Lecture 7 Pictures

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Foodchem Lecture 7 Pictures
2012-02-12 20:05:53
Foodchem Lecture Pictures

Foodchem Lecture 7 Pictures
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    • "Soy extraction plant"
    • Organic solvent is used to extract the residual oil from the oilseed cake produced by the expelling/extrusion operation
    • Solvent extraction requires a major investment in terms of capital equipment, including solvent recovery systems
    • "Lab soxhlet"
    • Organic solvent is used to extract the residual oil from the oilseed cake produced by the expelling/extrusion operation
    • "Canola oil destined for montreal"
    • There are relatively few crushing/solvent extraction plants in Canada, most in the prairies, where most of the oilseed production takes place
    • Canbra Plant (in Alberta) receives 5800 truckloads of canola per year, which corresponds to about 23 loads per day
    • "Soybeans"
    • Need to be heated, crushed, and then put through expelling and put through solvent extraction
    • "Press cake"
    • The residual "press cake" is desolventized and is usually sold as animal feed (bulk)
    • Some may be further processed to obtain soybean protein for human consumption (relatively minor amounts)
    • "Extracted oil is usually a dark brown, smelly liquid with a substantial amount of particulate material in it"
    • Much of the material suspended in the oil is colloidal debris, mainly comprised of dispersed protein and carbohydrate
    • Dark color is due to lipid-soluble materials such as carotenoids and chlorophyll and pheophytin
    • "Degumming process"
    • Live steam is injected into the oil
    • This hydrates the colloids and phospholipids, which in conjunction with centrifugation separate the hydrated colloids and water formed to make it a continuous process
    • If the oil contains significant levels of phospholipids, these are recovered
  1. "Bleaching is also serves as a secondary filtration process to remove any residual colloidal material or hydrogenation catalyst (if hydrogenated) from oils to produce a clear pale yellow oil"
  2. "Overall extraction process"
    • "Deodorizer"
    • The last group of contaminants left are any odoriferous compounds which may still be present which may give the oil off flavors not acceptable to industrial users or consumers
    • These are removed by steam stripping - spraying oil into evacuated chamber with superheated steam flowing counter-current to oil droplets
    • "Large scale fractional crystallization is a common means of separating out more saturated constituents from more unsaturated oils"
    • Commonly carried out with palm oil to produce palm stearin or palm fat
  3. "Fractional crystallization is also a means of obtaining harder fractions which can be blended with softer fractions to obtain plastic fats without resorting to hydrogenation"
    • "Hydrogenation example - Stearic Acid"
    • Addition of hydrogenation across the double bond of unsaturated fatty acids in triglycerides
    • Apply hydrogen at high temperatures/pressures in conjunction with a catalyst (usually nickel)
    • "This is the basic interesterification reaction"
    • This is randomizing the fatty acid distribution by interesterification
    • Exchange of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, using heat and a catalyst such as tin, lead, zinc, or alkali earth metals
    • "Interesterification of 3 pure triglycerides"
    • Reaction occurs within a triglyceride and also occurs between triglycerides