A&P Ch5

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Cascio
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134784
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A&P Ch5
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2012-02-12 20:51:30
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AAOS Paramedic
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Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. cephalic vein
    one of the two major veins in the arm that combine to form the axillary vein
  2. cerebellum
    the part of the brain that is located dorsal to the pons and is responsible for coordination and balance
  3. macrophages
    cells that are responsible for protecting the body against infection
  4. basilar artery
    artery that is formed when the left and right vertebral arteries unite after entering the brain through the foramen magnum
  5. stroke volume
    amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects into the aorta per contraction
  6. ST segment
    second pause that occurs in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the beginning of repolarization of the heart
  7. atherosclerosis
    disorder characterized by formation of plaques of material, mostly lipids and cholesterol, on the inner walls of the artery
  8. ascending aorta
    the first of three portions of the aorta; originates from the left ventricle and gives rise to two banches, the right and left main coronary arteries
  9. baroreceptors
    receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis
  10. leukocytes
    white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infection
  11. axillary vein
    vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic vein
  12. automacity
    ability of cardiac muscle cells to generate an impulse to contract even when there is no external nervous stimulus
  13. leukemia
    cancerous condition in which certain cell lines begin to grow abnormally fast and invade other tissues
  14. jugular veins
    two main veins that drain the head and the neck
  15. pericardial fluid
    a serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction
  16. mitral valve
    the valve in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
  17. endocarditis
    infection of a heart valve
  18. jaundice
    yellowing of the skin and sclera of the eyes due to excessive concetrations of bilirubin in the blood
  19. ischemia
    insufficient oxygen at a particular tissue site often associated with obstruction of arterial blood flow to the site
  20. erythrocytes
    disk shaped cells that carry oxygen to the tissues; also known as red blood cells
  21. excitability
    a property of cardiac cells that provides the cells with the ability to respond to electrical impulses
  22. atrium
    one of the two chambers in the heart that receives blood back from the body
  23. foramen ovale
    an opening between the two atria that is present in the fetus but closes shortly after birth
  24. erythroblastosis fetalis
    a serious condition that results when a pregnant womans blood type is incompatible with the fetus blood type and antibodies from the mother enter the fetal circulation and destroy the fetus red blood cells
  25. atrioventricular valves
    2 valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
  26. AV node
    the site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
  27. circumflex coronary artery
    one of the two branches of the left main coronary artery
  28. absolute refractory period
    the early phase of repolarization in which the cell contains such a large concentration of ions that it cannot be stimulated to depolarize
  29. afterload
    the pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood.
  30. agranulocytes
    leukocytes that lack granules.
  31. alpha effect
    stimulation of alpha receptors that results in vasoconstriction
  32. anemia
    a decrease in the number of red blood cells, for any reason.
  33. anterior descending coronary artery
    one of the two branches of the left main coronary artery.
  34. antibodies
    proteins within plasma that react with antigens.
  35. antigens
    substances on the surface of erythrocytes that are recognized by the immune system
  36. aorta
    the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the entire body.
  37. aortic arch
    one of the three described portions of the aorta; the section of the aorta between the ascending and descending portions that gives rise to the right brachiocephalic (innominate), left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries.
  38. aortic valve
    the semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.
  39. arteries
    the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
  40. arteriosclerosis
    the deposition of calcium in the arterial walls that results in a loss of elasticity and concomitant reduction in blood flow.
  41. ascending aorta
    the first of three portions of the aorta; originates from the left ventricle and gives rise to two branches, the right and left main coronary arteries.
  42. atherosclerosis
    a disorder characterized by the formation of plaques of material, mostly lipids and cholesterol, on the inner arterial walls.
  43. atrioventricular (AV) node
    the site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
  44. basilic vein
    one of the two major veins of the arm, it combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein.
  45. basophils
    the least common of all granulocytes; they are important in both allergic and inflammatory reactions.
  46. beta effect
    stimulation of beta receptors that results in increased inotropic, dromotropic, and chronotropic states.
  47. bilirubin
    a waste product of red blood cell destruction that undergoes further metabolism in the liver
  48. blood
    the fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consists of plasma and formed elements or cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  49. bruit
    an abnormal "whooshing-like" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within a blood vessel.
  50. bundle of His
    part of the conduction system of the heart; a continuation of the atrioventricular node.
  51. capillaries
    microscopic, thin-walled blood vessels through which oxygen and nutrients and carbon dioxide and waste products are exchanged.
  52. cardiac cycle
    the repetitive pumping process that begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just prior to the beginning of the next contraction
  53. cardiac output
    the amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in 1 minute.
  54. cardiac tamponade
    a life-threatening state of shock that develops as a result of a large pericardial effusion.
  55. carotid bifurcation
    the point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries
  56. carotid canals
    an opening in the cranial vault through which the carotid arteries enter.
  57. carotid sinus
    a slight dilatation in the carotid bifurcation that contains structures that are important in the regulation of blood pressure.
  58. cephalic vein
    one of the two major veins of the arm that combine to form the axillary vein.
  59. cerebral arteries
    the arteries that supply blood to large portions of the cerebral cortex of the brain.
  60. chordae tendineae cordis
    small muscular strands that attach the ventricles and the valves, preventing regurgitation of blood through the valves from the ventricles to the atria.
  61. chronotropic state
    related to the control of the heart's rate of contraction.
  62. circle of Willis
    an interconnection of the anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery, which forms an important source of collateral circulation to the brain.
  63. circumflex coronary artery
    one of the two branches of the left main coronary artery
  64. conduction system
    a group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue
  65. conductivity
    the ability of cardiac cells to conduct electrical impulses.
  66. contractility
    the strength of heart muscle contraction.
  67. coronary arteries
    arteries that arise from the aorta shortly after it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients.
  68. coronary artery disease (CAP)
    the condition that results when either atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis is present in the arterial walls.
  69. coronary sinus
    veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart.
  70. cusps
    the flaps that comprise the heart valves.
  71. depolarization
    the process of electrical discharge and flow of electrical activity from a cell.
  72. descending aorta
    one of the three portions of the aorta, it is the longest portion and extends through the thorax and abdomen into the pelvis.
  73. diapedesis
    a process whereby leukocytes leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most.
  74. dorsalis pedis artery
    a continuation of the anterior tibial artery at the foot.
  75. dromotropic state
    related to the control of the heart's conduction rate.
  76. ejection fraction
    the portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole.
  77. electrical potential
    an electrical charge difference that is created by the difference in sodium and potassium concentration across the cell membrane at any given instant.
  78. electrocardiogram (ECG)
    electrocardiogram (ECG) -- a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
  79. embolus
    a piece of clot that travels from one part of the body to another, potentially becoming an obstruction to blood flow.
  80. eosinophils
    granulocytes that contain granules that stain bright red with the acidic stain, eosin, and function in the body's allergic response.
  81. epicardium
    the layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; also called the visceral pericardium.
  82. epinephrine
    a naturally occurring hormone with a greater stimulatory effect on beta receptors that also may be given as a cardiac drug.
  83. erythropoiesis
    the process by which red blood cells are made.
  84. femoral artery
    a continuation of the external iliac artery, it supplies circulation to the thigh, external genitalia, anterior abdominal wall, and knee.
  85. femoral vein
    a continuation of the saphenous vein that drains into the external iliac vein.
  86. fibrin
    a white insoluble protein formed in the clotting process.
  87. fossa ovalis
    a depression between the right and left atria that indicates where the foramen ovale had been located in the fetus.
  88. granulocytes
    a type of leukocyte that has large cytoplasmic granules that are easily seen with a simple light microscope.
  89. heart
    a muscular, cone-shaped organ whose function is to pump blood throughout the body.
  90. hematopoiesis
    the process of blood cell production in the bone marrow; also called hemopoiesis.
  91. hemoglobin
    an iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells, carries 97% of oxygen.
  92. hemostasis
    control of bleeding by formation of a blood clot.
  93. heparin
    a substance found in large amounts in basophils that inhibits blood clotting.
  94. hepatic portal system
    a specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the liver, stomach, intestines, and spleen.
  95. hepatic veins
    the veins to which blood empties after liver cells in the sinusoids of the liver extract nutrients, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs.
  96. histamine
    a substance found in large amounts in basophils that increases tissue inflammation.
  97. inferior vena cava
    one of two major large veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart via the right atrium. Blood from the lower body is returned to the heart by the inferior vena cava.
  98. inotropic state
    related to the strength of the heart's contraction.
  99. interatrial septum
    a membrane that separates the right and left atria.
  100. interventricular septum
    a thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles.
  101. lumen
    the opening of a vessel.
  102. lymphocytes
    the smallest of the agranulocytes, they originate in the bone marrow but migrate through the blood to the lymphatic tissues.
  103. mediastinum
    the area in the chest that lies between the lungs and contains the heart and great vessels.
  104. mesenteric angina
    pain caused by partial occlusion of the mesenteric artery from atherosclerosis.
  105. mesenteric infarction
    blockage of a mesenteric artery resulting in necrosis of a portion of the bowel.
  106. monocytes
    agarnulocytes that migrate out of the blood and into the tissues in response to an infection.
  107. murmur
    an abnormal heart sound, heard as a "whooshinglike" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within the heart
  108. myocardial infarction
    blockage of the arteries that supply oxygen to the heart, resulting in death to a portion of the myocardium.
  109. myocardium
    the heart muscle.
  110. neutrophils
    one of the three types of granulocytes; they have multi-lobed nuclei that resemble a string of baseballs held together by a thin strand of thread; they destroy bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes, and foreign matter.
  111. norepinephrine
    a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system.
  112. P wave
    the first positive wave in the normal cardiac conduction pattern, it represents movement of the electrical impulse through the atria, resulting in atrial contraction.
  113. P-R segment
    a flat line or electrical pause that follows the P wave in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the time delay that occurs within the atrioventricular node.
  114. palmar arches
    the two arches formed from the radial and ulnar vessels within the hand, creating the superficial and deep palmar arches.
  115. papillary muscles
    specialized muscles that attach the ventricles to the cusps of the valves by muscular strands called chordae tendineae cordis.
  116. visceral layer
    The layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; also called the epicardium.
  117. ventricle
    one of the two lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart.
  118. venous sinuses
    spaces between the membranes surrounding the brain that are the primary means of venous drainage from the brain.
  119. veins
    the blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart.
  120. tunica media
    the middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand.
  121. tunica intima
    the smooth, thin, inner lining of a blood vessel.
  122. tunica adventitia
    the outer layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic and fibrous connective tissue.
  123. tricuspid valve
    the heart valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
  124. tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
    a major component in the fibrinolytic system, in which clots that have already formed are lysed or disrupted, converting plasminogen to plasmin.
  125. tibial veins
    a continuation of the veins of the feet that unite at the knee to form the popliteal vein, which then drains into the femoral vein.
  126. thrombin
    an enzyme that causes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which binds to the platelet plug, forming the final mature clot.
  127. thrombi
    blood clots.
  128. T wave
    the third positive waveform in the normal electrical conduction pattern; it represents the completion of repolarization.
  129. systole
    contraction of the ventricular mass with its concomitant pumping of blood into the system circulation.
  130. parietal layer
    one of two layers of the serous pericardium. It is separated from the visceral pericardium by a small amount of pericardial fluid.
  131. pericardial effusion
    an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac.
  132. pericardial fluid
    a serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction.
  133. pericardial sac
    a thick fibrous membrane that surrounds the heart; also called the pericardium.
  134. pericardiocentesis
    a life-saving procedure to correct cardiac tamponade, in which a needle is inserted into the pericardial sac to remove excess fluid that is restricting the heart from expanding and contracting properly.
  135. pericarditis
    infection or inflammation of the pericardial membranes, resulting in severe chest pain.
  136. pericardium
    the serous membranes that surround the heart.
  137. phlebitis
    inflammatory condition involving veins; often associated with thrombus formation within the vein.
  138. plasma
    a watery, straw-colored fluid that accounts for more than half of the total blood volume.
  139. plasmin
    an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin in blood clots
  140. platelets
    small cells in the blood that are essential for clot formation.
  141. polarized state
    the state of the resting cell, which normally has a net negative charge with respect to the outside of the cell.
  142. pons
    the mass of nerve fibers at the end of the medulla oblongata.
  143. popliteal artery
    a continuation of the femoral artery at the lower thigh
  144. systemic circulation
    the circulatory system in the body that is responsible for blood flow in all areas of the body, except for areas covered by the pulmonary circulation.
  145. popliteal vein
    the vein that forms when the anterior and posterior tibial veins unite at the knee.
  146. pulmonary circulation
    the circulatory system in the body that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, and back to the left side of the heart
  147. pulmonary embolism
    a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when an embolus travels from one part of the body (typically the legs) to the lungs, blocking blood flow to a portion of the lung.
  148. pulmonic valve
    the semilunar valve that regulates blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
  149. QRS complex
    the second positive waveform that follows the P-R segment in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the depolarization of the ventricles. This complex corresponds to ventricular contraction, or systole.
  150. Raynaud's phenomenon
    spasms that develop in the digital arteries, particularly following emotional stress or cold exposure, resulting in white and cool fingertips.
  151. relative refractory period
    the latter phase of repolarization in which the cells are able to respond to a stronger-thannormal stimulus.
  152. repolarization
    the process of returning to the cardiac cells' resting or polarized state that occurs once the cardiac cells depolarize.
  153. rheumatic fever
    an acute condition that affects children and young adults and may result in permanent damage to the aortic and mitral valves.
  154. saphenous vein
    the longest vein in the body, it drains the leg, thigh, and dorsum of the foot.
  155. semilunar valves
    the two valves, the aortic and pulmonic valves, that divide the heart from the aorta and pulmonary artery.
  156. serous pericardium
    the inner membrane of the pericardium, which contains two layers called the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium.
  157. sinoatrial (SA) node
    the normal site of the origin of electrical impulses; located high in the right atrium, it is the heart's natural pacemaker.
  158. sinoatrial node
    the normal site of the origin of electrical impulses; located high in the right atrium, it is the heart's natural pacemaker.
  159. sinusoids
    a part of the hepatic portal system in which blood collects within the liver and the liver cells extract nutrients from the blood, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs.
  160. sodium-potassium pump
    a molecular (ion-transporting) mechanism whereby sodium is actively moved out of a cell and potassium moved in.
  161. subclavian artery
    the proximal part of the main artery of the arm, which supplies the brain, neck, anterior chest wall, and shoulder.
  162. subclavian vein
    the proximal part of the main vein of the arm, which unites with the internal jugular vein.
  163. superior vena cava
    one of two major large veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart via the right atrium. Blood from the upper body is returned to the heart by the superior vena cava

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