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there are specific proteins on my cells that are only found on the cell in my body. If same cell is put into a different person then these proteins will be recognized by that person'immune-system as non-sefl. Because the cell-surface proteins are non-self to another person's immune system, they are antigens, which are proteins capable of stimulating an immun eresponse.
Inflamation with and without infection
- without infectious - (tissue damage)sprain, MI, sterile surgical incisions, thrombophlebitis.
- noninfectious infesion by forein proteins - allergic rhinitis, contact dermatitis, and other allergic raections.
- by infection - otitismedia, appendicitis, peritonitis, viral hipapatis.
- Inflammation does not alwas mean that an infection is pressent.
Cell types involved in inflammation
- The leukocytes:
- Monocyte- mature into macrophage
- Neutrophil and macrophages - phagocytosis
- Eosi and baso - release chemicals to cause tissue-level response.
- phagocytosis and enzymatic digestion
- Complete maturation in the bone marros.
- Also called granulocites
- Mature neutrophils - segs
- Immature neutrophils - bands
- It takes 12-14 days to mature ( live 12-18hrs) but cytokines can shortene the time in sertain conditions.
Left shift or bandemia
- ANC - absolute neutrophil count - count of mature (segs) neutrophils - it is counted to measure a pt's risk for infrection.
- Bends should not be present in theblood at all.
- Differential/ normal WBC - shows many different types of circulatoiin leukocytes (segs, bands, monos, lymphs, eosin, baso)
- when there is more bands in the blood then segs. It means that the person's bone marrow cannot produce enough mature neutrophils to keep pace with the continuing infection and is releasing immature neutrophils into the blood.
Stem cells - > monocytes (released into the blood) and until they mature they have limited activity. ->> move from blood into tissues ->> mature into macrophages.
Some become fixed, others can move within and between the tissues. Liver, spleen, and intestinal tract contain large number.
Function of macrophages
- immediate inflammation(phagocytosis) response and stimulate the longer-lasting immune responses of AMI and CMI.
- Specific functions: phagocytosis, repari, antigen presenting/processing, secretionof cytokines.
- Have long life and can renew the energy supplies and enzymes.
- 1%, cause the manifestations (proyavlenie) of inflammation.
- Functions: contain chemicals (vasoactive)
- heparin: inhibits blood andprotein cloting.
- Histamine: constircts small veins and resp smoothmuslces which narrows airways and restricts breathing.
- Kinins: dilate arterioles and increase capillary permeability that cause blood paslma to leak into the interstitial space (vascular leak).
act against infestations of parasitic larvae. Some substances induce inflammation when release. Other, enzymes degrade the vasoactive chemicals released by other leukocytes and limit inflammatory reactions. Number of eso increase during allergic response.
- For phagocytosis to start, leukocytes must be first exposed to foreign proteins, organisms, debris.
- Then attraction, damaged tissues and blood vessesl secrete chemotaxins (substance that attract neutrophils and marcophages) and release debris that can combine with the surface of invading foreig nproteins.
3 stages of inflammatory responses
responses at thetissue level cause: warmth, redness, swelling, pain,and decreased function.