Philosophy 101

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Philosophy 101
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2012-02-12 21:20:41
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  1. general moral theory
    what makes right acts right and wrong acts wrong
  2. ethics is the law
    criticism
    • if an act is legal then it is moral
    • was slavery moral
  3. golden rule
    criticism
    • Treat others as you would have them treat you
    • what if the way i wanted to be treated is not the way someone esle wants to be treated
  4. subjective relativism
    criticism
    • morality is a matter of personal opion
    • x is right if i believe it is right
    • one could never be wrong in this case
  5. cultural relativism
    • an action is right if your culture approves of it
    • what is your culture
    • cultures can be mistaken
    • reasons should matter not simply what a large group believes
  6. relativism to types of moral therories
    • subjective relativism
    • cultural relativism
  7. utilitarinism
    • you should maximize overall happiness everyone considered equally
    • consequential theory
    • considered equal does not mean treated equal
    • also must consider quality vs quantity
  8. critism of utilitarinism
    • it is too demanding
    • it ignores obligation to friends and family
    • it ignores rights
  9. kant
    • we are moral because we are rational where intentions indicate morality
    • treat others ans and end not a means.
    • act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should be universal law
  10. kants perfect duties (three) and
    criticism
    dont lie dont kill keep your promise

    • moral duties dont seem to be perfect there are exceptions
    • dont not-rational things also have moral rights: animals
  11. natural law theory
    criticism
    • the moral thing to do is to do what is natural
    • using anything for its natural purpose is immoral:
    • I.E. using your foot to move a chair is immoral then
  12. divine command theory
    example
    criticism
    • an actoin is right if god commands it.
    • the ten commandments

    • does god exist
    • what is gods true word
    • what if god says to murder
    • we can figure our morality independant of god
  13. ross' theory seven prime facie moral principles (or duties)
    how do you determine which to superseed another
    criticism
    • we follow the strongest one in any particular case
    • the duty of fidelity duty of self improvement
    • duty of reparation duty of non-maleficience
    • duty of gratitude
    • duties of justice duty of benence like utilitarinism
  14. feminist ethics
    criticism
    • an ethic of care says we have moral obiligation to those we care about
    • some times we care too much some times too little
  15. virtue ethics
    • focuses on character not action
    • a person should be virtueous

    it often does not tell us what to do
  16. virtues
    couragous generosity, honest
  17. social contract theory
    criticism
    • there is a often implicit contrat we all agree to follow inorder to live moral/civil lives.
    • we agree not to lie steal kill etc.

    • what contract? what rules?
    • whoall should be at the table to negotiate the rules. what about animals and others who cannot negotiate

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