BiologyReview1

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Author:
HannahD
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134816
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BiologyReview1
Updated:
2012-02-12 22:00:11
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Biology Review One Semester Two Mutations Mitosis Meiosis Genetics Blood Types
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A review over the first six weeks of Biology semester 2. It will cover: mutations,mitosis and meiosis,genetics,and blood typing
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  1. Mutation (Define)
    Any change in DNA.
  2. Mutagen (Define and give examples)
    • Anything that causes a mutation.
    • Ex. X-Rays; Chemicals; Asbestos; Viruses, Etc.
  3. Frameshift Mutation (Define)
    A genetic mutation in which a nitrogen base is added or subtracted.
  4. Substituation Mutation (Define)
    A genetic mutation in which one base is substituted for another.
  5. Deletion Mutation (Define)
    • Information on a chromosome is deleted.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ACDE
  6. Insertion/Duplication Mutation
    • A part of a chromosome is duplicated.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ABCBCDE
  7. Reciprocal Translocation Mutation
    • Information from two chromosomes switch.
    • Ex. ABCDE -and- FEGHI become FEGDE -and- ABCHI
  8. Inversion Mutation
    • Information on a chromosome reverses.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ADCBE
  9. A condition in which three chromosomes instead of two are found at spot 21 can be called:
    • Down's Syndrome
    • Trisomy 21
  10. Trisomy 21 results from a ______________ ________.
    Nondisjunction Mutation.
  11. Gametes (Define)
    Egg and Sperm
  12. The purpose of mitosis is:
    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Replacement
  13. Somatic cells are produced through:
    Mitosis
  14. Gametes are produced during:
    Meiosis
  15. Cell DNA replicates during what part of interphase?
    S phase (Synthesis Phase)
  16. True/False
    Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells.
    True- Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells.
  17. Give the order of the phases in Mitosis.
    Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
  18. _________ produces identical daughter cells.
    Mitosis.
  19. Crossing-Over (Define)
    The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
  20. A human gamete has how many chromosomes?
    23 (n)
  21. Chromatin coils into chromosomes during:
    Prophase
  22. Crossing-Over happens during:
    Prophase I
  23. Centrioles and spindle fibers disappear during:
    Telophase
  24. Eggs are also known as:
    Ootids
  25. How many eggs are produced during meiosis?
    One
  26. Female or male? XX
    Female
  27. Female or male? XY
    Male
  28. The gametes that disintegrate during meiosis are called:
    Polar Bodies
  29. The "I" in a blood genotype (IAi) is called an:
    Isoantibody
  30. The "A" or "B" in a blood genotype (IAIB) is called a:
    Surface Carbohydrate
  31. Codominance (Define)
    When both alleles of a trait are equally strong. There is no recessive trait. Both traits will show, such as Brown and White making Spotted.
  32. Incomplete Dominance
    One allele for a trait is not completely dominant over the other. A combination of the traits will cause a blend of phenotypes, such as red and white making pink.
  33. Sex-Linked Traits and Diseases (Define)
    These diseases are found only on the X chromosome. The are more often found in males than females.
  34. Dihybrid Cross (Define)
    A cross when 2 traits are taken into consideration.

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