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2012-02-12 22:00:11
Biology Review One Semester Two Mutations Mitosis Meiosis Genetics Blood Types

A review over the first six weeks of Biology semester 2. It will cover: mutations,mitosis and meiosis,genetics,and blood typing
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  1. Mutation (Define)
    Any change in DNA.
  2. Mutagen (Define and give examples)
    • Anything that causes a mutation.
    • Ex. X-Rays; Chemicals; Asbestos; Viruses, Etc.
  3. Frameshift Mutation (Define)
    A genetic mutation in which a nitrogen base is added or subtracted.
  4. Substituation Mutation (Define)
    A genetic mutation in which one base is substituted for another.
  5. Deletion Mutation (Define)
    • Information on a chromosome is deleted.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ACDE
  6. Insertion/Duplication Mutation
    • A part of a chromosome is duplicated.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ABCBCDE
  7. Reciprocal Translocation Mutation
    • Information from two chromosomes switch.
    • Ex. ABCDE -and- FEGHI become FEGDE -and- ABCHI
  8. Inversion Mutation
    • Information on a chromosome reverses.
    • Ex. ABCDE becomes ADCBE
  9. A condition in which three chromosomes instead of two are found at spot 21 can be called:
    • Down's Syndrome
    • Trisomy 21
  10. Trisomy 21 results from a ______________ ________.
    Nondisjunction Mutation.
  11. Gametes (Define)
    Egg and Sperm
  12. The purpose of mitosis is:
    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Replacement
  13. Somatic cells are produced through:
  14. Gametes are produced during:
  15. Cell DNA replicates during what part of interphase?
    S phase (Synthesis Phase)
  16. True/False
    Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells.
    True- Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells.
  17. Give the order of the phases in Mitosis.
    Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
  18. _________ produces identical daughter cells.
  19. Crossing-Over (Define)
    The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
  20. A human gamete has how many chromosomes?
    23 (n)
  21. Chromatin coils into chromosomes during:
  22. Crossing-Over happens during:
    Prophase I
  23. Centrioles and spindle fibers disappear during:
  24. Eggs are also known as:
  25. How many eggs are produced during meiosis?
  26. Female or male? XX
  27. Female or male? XY
  28. The gametes that disintegrate during meiosis are called:
    Polar Bodies
  29. The "I" in a blood genotype (IAi) is called an:
  30. The "A" or "B" in a blood genotype (IAIB) is called a:
    Surface Carbohydrate
  31. Codominance (Define)
    When both alleles of a trait are equally strong. There is no recessive trait. Both traits will show, such as Brown and White making Spotted.
  32. Incomplete Dominance
    One allele for a trait is not completely dominant over the other. A combination of the traits will cause a blend of phenotypes, such as red and white making pink.
  33. Sex-Linked Traits and Diseases (Define)
    These diseases are found only on the X chromosome. The are more often found in males than females.
  34. Dihybrid Cross (Define)
    A cross when 2 traits are taken into consideration.