Chapter 6

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Author:
jskunz
ID:
134819
Filename:
Chapter 6
Updated:
2012-02-13 00:26:05
Tags:
orthopedics
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Description:
Medical Terminology
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  1. arthr/o
    joint
  2. burs/o
    bursa
  3. carp/o
    carpals (wrists)
  4. chondr/o
    cartilage
  5. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  6. coccyg/o
    coccyx (tailbone)
  7. cost/o
    rib
  8. crani/o
    skull
  9. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  10. fibul/o
    fibula (thinner lower leg bone)
  11. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  12. ili/o
    ilium (part of pelvis)
  13. ischi/o
    ischium (part of pelvis)
  14. mandibul/o
    mandible (lower jaw)
  15. maxill/o
    maxilla (upper jaw)
  16. metacarp/o
    metacarpus (hand bones)
  17. metatars/o
    metatarsus (foot bones)
  18. muscul/o
    muscle
  19. my/o
    muscle
  20. myel/o
    bone marrow
  21. oste/o
    bone
  22. patell/o
    patella (knee cap)
  23. phalang/o
    phalanges (fingers and toes)
  24. pub/o
    pubis (part of pelvis)
  25. radi/o
    radius (part of forearm)
  26. sacr/o
    sacrum
  27. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade)
  28. spondyl/o
    vertebra
  29. stern/o
    sternum (breast bone)
  30. tars/o
    tarsals (ankles)
  31. ten/o
    tendon
  32. tendin/o
    tendon
  33. tibi/o
    tibia (shin, larger lower leg bone)
  34. uln/o
    ulna (part of forearm)
  35. vertebr/o
    vertebra
  36. cutane/o
    skin
  37. fibr/o
    fibrous
  38. kyph/o
    hump
  39. lord/o
    bent backward
  40. orth/o
    straight
  41. path/o
    disease
  42. scoli/o
    crooked, bent
  43. ligaments
    joins muscle to muscle
  44. tendons
    attaches muscles to bones
  45. -algia
    • pain
    • -suffix used to indictate disease or abnormal condition
  46. -ary
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word roots into adjective
  47. -ac
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word roots into adjective
  48. -ar
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word root into adjective
  49. -asthenia
    • weakness
    • -suffix used to indictate disease or abnormal condition
  50. -centesis
    • punture to withdraw fluid
    • -suffix indictating diagnostic procedures
  51. -clasia
    • surgical breaking
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedures
  52. -cyte
    • cell
    • -general suffix
  53. -desis
    • surgical fixation
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedure
  54. -dynia
    • pain
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  55. -eal
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word root into adjective
  56. -ectomy
    • surgical removal
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedure
  57. -genic
    • producing
    • -general suffix
  58. -gram
    • record
    • -suffix indictating diagnostic procedure
  59. -graphy
    • record
    • -suffix indictating diagnostic procedure
  60. -ic
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word root into adjective
  61. -itis
    • inflammation
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  62. -kinesia
    • movement
    • -general suffix
  63. -malacia
    • softening
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  64. -metry
    • process of measuring
    • -suffix indictating diagnostic procedure
  65. -oma
    • tumor
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  66. -osis
    • abnormal condition
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  67. -otomy
    • cutting into
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedure
  68. -ous
    • pertaining to
    • -suffix used to convert word root into adjective
  69. -pathy
    • disease
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  70. -plasty
    • surgical repair
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedure
  71. -porosis
    • porous
    • -general suffix
  72. -rrhaphy
    • suture
    • -suffix indictating surgical procedure
  73. -rrhexis
    • rupture
    • -suffix indictating disease or abnormal condition
  74. -scope
    instrument for viewing
  75. -scopy
    process of visually examining
  76. -trophy
    development
  77. a-
    without
  78. brady-
    slow
  79. dys-
    difficult
  80. inter-
    between
  81. intra-
    within
  82. hyper-
    excessive
  83. per-
    through
  84. sub-
    under
  85. supra-
    above
  86. 3 types of muscles in body:
    • skeletal muscle: moves the skeleton
    • smooth muscle: produces movement of internal organs
    • cardiac muscle: produces heartbeat
  87. myel/o
    • red bone marrow
    • (red bone marrow is found inside bones, produces red blood cells)
  88. bone graft
    Surgical procedure that uses a piece of bone to replace lost bone or to fuse two bones together
  89. bone scan
    nuclear medicine scan using radioactive dye to visualize bones; especially useful for finding stress fractures and bone cancer
  90. Carpal tunnel syndrome
    • CTS
    • repetitive motion disorder caused by pressure on tendons and nerves as they pass through carpal tunnel of wrist.
  91. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open skin wound; also called simple fracture.
  92. comminuted fracture
    bone break where bone shatters into many small fragments
  93. compound fracture
    broken bone with open skin wound; also called open fracture
  94. compression fracture
    bone break causing loss of height of vertebral body; may result from trauma, but in older persons, especially women, may occur in a bone weakened by osteoporosis
  95. contracture
    abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or connective tissue making it difficult to stretch muscle
  96. creatine kinase
    • (CK)
    • muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle; elevated blood levels associated with heart attack, muscular dystropy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies
  97. deep tendon reflexes
    • (DTR)
    • involuntary muscle contraction in response to striking muscle tendon with reflex hammer; test used to determine whether muscles respond properly
  98. dislocation
    occurs when bones in joint are displaced from normal alignment and ends of bones are no longer in contact with each other
  99. dual-energy absorptiometry
    • (DXA)... -metry = process of measuring
    • test using low-dose x-ray beams to measure bone density; used to diagnose osteoporosis
  100. fibromyalgia
    chronic condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and fibrous soft tissue
  101. fixation
    procedure to stabilize fractured bone while it heals; external fixation includes casts, splints, and pins inserted through skin; internal fixation includes pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires that are put into place during surgical procedure called open reduction
  102. fracture
    • (FX, Fx)
    • broken bone
  103. greenstick fracture
    fracture with incomplete break; one side of the bone breaks and the other side only bends; commonly seen in children because their bones are still pliable
  104. herniated nucleus pulposus
    • (HNP)
    • protrusion of intervertebral disk between two vertebrae, which puts pressure on spinal nerves; aslo called herniated disk or ruptured disk; may require surgery
  105. impacted fracture
    fracture in which one bone fragment is pushed into another
  106. kyphosis
    abnormal increase in normal outward curvature of thoracis spine; also called hunchback or humpback
  107. lordosis
    abnormal increase in normal forward curvature of lumbar spine; also called swayback
  108. muscle atrophy
    loss of muscle bulk due to muscle disease, nervous system disease, or lack of use; commonly called muscle wasting
  109. muscular dystrophy
    (MD) one of a group of inherited diseases involving progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy
  110. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    (NSAIDs) large group of drugs that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis
  111. oblique fracture
    bone break in which fracture line runs along an angle to shaft of the bone
  112. orthosis
    externally applied brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities; orthotist is person skilled in making and adjusting orthoses
  113. osteoarthritis
    (OA) arthritis caused by loss of cartilage cushion covering bones in joint; most common in bearing weight joints; results in bone rubbing against bone
  114. osteogenic sarcoma
    most common type of bone cancer; usually begins in osteocytes found at ends of bones; most frequently occurs occurs in persons 10 - 25 years old
  115. pathologic fracture
    broken bone caused by diseased or weakened bone, not trauma
  116. percutaneous diskectomy
    use of a thin catheter tube inserted into intervertebral disk through skin to suck out pieces of herniated or ruptured disk; or laser is used to vaporize disk
  117. prosthesis
    any artificial device used as substitute for body part that is either missing from birth or lost as the result of an accident or disease; example: artificial leg; prosthetist is person trained in making prostheses
  118. radiography
    diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays to see internal structure of body; especially useful for visualizing bones and joints
  119. reduction
    correcting fracture or dislocation by realigning bone; closed reduction moves bones esternally; open reduction manipulates bones through a surgical incision; open reduction usually performed before interal fixation of bony fragments
  120. repetitive motion disorder
    group of chronic disorders with tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage caused by prolonged periods of pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements
  121. rheumatoid arthritis
    (RA) arthritis with swelling, stiffness, pain, and degeneration of cartilage in joints caused by chronic soft tissue inflammation; may result in crippling deformities; an autoimmune disease
  122. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of spine
  123. spasm
    sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
  124. spina bifida
    birth defect that occurs when vertebra fails to fully form around spinal cord, ranges from mild to severe; if spinal cord is damaged, paralysis results
  125. spinal fracture
    bone break in which fracture line spirals around shaft of the bone; caused by twisting injury; often slower to heal than other types of fractures
  126. sprain
    ligament injury from overstretching, but without joint dislocation or bone fracture
  127. strain
    damage to the muscle or tendons from overuse or overstretching
  128. stress fracture
    a slight bone break caused by repetitive low-impact forces, such as running rather than single forceful impact
  129. total hip arthroplasty
    (THA) surgical reconstruction of hip with artificial hip joint; also called total hip replacement (THR)
  130. total knee arthroplasty
    surgical reconstruction of knee joint with artificial knee joint; also called total knee replacement
  131. transverse fracture
    bone break with fracture line straight across shaft of bone

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