Ch. 1 Microbiology

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Ch. 1 Microbiology
2012-02-13 10:22:05
Microbiology Nomenclature Microorganisms Types

Ch. 1 Microbiology Tortora, Funke, and Case
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  1. Prokaryotes and 2 Examples
    • Unicellular Organisms with no nucleus/genetic material;
    • Bacteria and Archaea
  2. Bacteria: Characteristics and Features
    • -Relatively simple, unicellular organisms.
    • -Prokaryote.
    • -Enclosed in cell walls that're mostly composed of Peptidoglycans. (in contrast, cellulose is the main substance of plant and algal cell walls)
    • - Reproduce = by dividing into 2 equal cells via binary fission.
    • - Nutrition = use organic chems, in nature can be derived from either dead or living organisms, some bacteria can manufacture own food via photosynthesis.
    • -Movement = "swim" by moving appendages (flagella)
  3. Bacteria Shapes
    • 1.) Bacillus (rodelike)
    • 2.) Coccus (spherical or ovoid)
    • 3.) Spiral (corkscrew or curved)
  4. Archaea: Characteristics and Features
    • -Like bacteria, consist of prokaryotic cells.
    • -If they have cell walls, the walls lack peptidoglycan.
    • -Often found in extreme environments.
    • -Not known to cause disease in humans.
  5. 3 Main Archaea Groups
    • 1.) Methanogens - produce methane as a waste product from respiration.
    • 2.) Extreme Halophiles (Halo=salt, Philic=loving) - live in extremely salty environments such as the Dead Sea
    • 3.) Extreme Thermophiles - live in hot sulfurous water, such as hot springs in Yellowstone Park.
  6. Fungi: Characteristics and Features
    • -Eukaryotes; organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus, surrounded by nuclear membrane.
    • -May be unicellular or multicellular
  7. Fungi: Multicellular
    -Large Multicellular (ie Mushrooms) - may look somewhat like plants but they cannot carry out photosynthesis.-True fungi have cell walls composed of chitin.
  8. Fungi: Unicellular
    • -yeasts; oval microorganisms
    • -larger than bacteria
    • -most typical fungi are molds.
  9. Molds
    • -Form visible masses called mycelia, which are composed of long filaments (hyphae) that branch and intertwine.
    • -Cottony growths on bread and fruit are mold mycelia.
    • -Reproduce=sexually or asexually.
    • -Nourishment=absorbing solutions of organic material from their environment--whether soil, seawater, fresh water, or an animal or plant host)
    • -Slime Molds have characteristics of both fungi and amoebas.
  10. Protozoa: Characteristics and Features
    • -unicellular eukaryotic microbes.
    • -move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia.
    • -Amoebas move by using extension of their cytoplasm called pseudopods (false feet).
    • -Variety of shapes and live either as free entities or as parasites (organisms that derive nutrients from a living host) that absorb or ingest organinc compounds from their environment.
    • -Reproduce=sexually or asexually.
  11. Algae: Characteristics and Features
    • -photosynthetic eukarotes with a wide variet of shapes and both sexual and a sexual reporductive forms.
    • -unicellular most interesting to microbiologists.
    • -Cell walls of many algae=cellulose (carbohydrate)
    • -Abundant in fresh and salt water, in soil, and in association with plants.
    • -Need light, water, and CO2 for food production and growth.
    • -Generally don't require organic compounds from the environment.
    • -Result of photosynthesis, algae produce O2 and carbohydrates that are utilized by other organisms.
    • -Thus play important role in balance of nature.
  12. Viruses: Characteristics and Features
    • -very different from the other microbial groups mentioned.
    • -So small that they can only be seen w/ electron microscope.
    • -Acellular
    • -Structurally very simple, a virus particle contains a core made of only on type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA.
    • -This core is surrounded by a protein coat.
    • -Sometimes the coat is encased by a lipid membrane (envelope)
    • -Can only reproduce by using cellular machinery of other organisms.
    • -Only considerd living when they multiply within host
  13. Two Major Groups of Multicellular Animal Parasites
    • -Flat worms
    • -Round worms
    • -Collectively called helminths.
    • -During some stages of their life cycle, microscopic in size.
  14. Classification of Microorganisms
    • -In 1978, Carl Woese devised a system of classification based on the cellular organization of organisms.
    • -It groups all organisms into 3 domains:
    • 1.)Bacteria (cell walls contain a protein-carbohydrate complex called peptidoglycan.)
    • 2.)Archaea (cell walls, if present, lack peptidoglycan.
    • 3.) Eukarya
    • -Protists (slime molds, protozoa, and algae)
    • -Fungi (unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, and mushrooms.)
    • -Plants (includes mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants.)
    • -Animals (includes sponges, worms, insects, and vertebrates.