Medical Terminology Ch 17

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Medical Terminology Ch 17
2012-02-18 19:18:33
Sense Organs Eye Ear

The Language of Medicine Chapter 17 Sense Organs: The Eye and the Ear
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  1. Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near.
  2. Area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor.
    anterior chamber
  3. Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber.
    aqueous humor
  4. humor
    Any body fluid, including blood and lymph.
  5. Consisting of two surfaces that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere.
  6. Middle, vascular layer of the eye, behind the retina and the sclera.
  7. Structure surrounding the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and it secretes aqueous humor.
    ciliary body
  8. Photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse.
    cone. Cones are responsible for color and central vision.
  9. Delicate membrane lining the undersurface of the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball.
  10. Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.
  11. Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
    fovea centralis
  12. Posterior, inner part of the eye.
    fundus of the eye
  13. Pigmented (colored) layer that opens and closes to allow more or less light into the eye.
  14. Transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. It bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina.
  15. Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, which is the area of clearest vision.
  16. Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain.
    optic chiasm (chiasm means crossing).
  17. Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.
    optic disc
  18. Cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain (cerebral cortex).
    optic nerve
  19. Central opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass. It appears dark.
  20. Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina.
    refraction. Refract means to break (-fract) back (re-).
  21. Light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones).
  22. Photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision.
  23. Tough, white outer coat of the eyeball.
  24. Relay center of the brain.
    thalamus. Optic nerve fibers pass through the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex.
  25. Soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
    vitreous humor
  26. aque/o
  27. blephar/o
    eyelid (see also palpebr/o)
  28. conjunctiv/o
  29. cor/o
    pupil (see also pupill/o)
  30. corne/o
    cornea (see also kerat/o)
  31. cycl/o
    ciliary body or muscle of the eye
  32. dacry/o
    tears, tear duct (see also lacrim/o)
  33. ir/o
    iris (colored portion of the eye around the pupil)
  34. kerat/o
  35. lacrim/o
  36. ocul/o
  37. ophthalm/o
  38. opt/o
    eye, vision
  39. palpebr/o
  40. papill/o
    optic disc; nipple-like
  41. phac/o
    lens of the eye
  42. pupill/o
  43. retin/o
  44. scler/o
    sclera (white of the eye); hard
  45. uve/o
    uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choroid)
  46. vitre/o
  47. ambly/o
    dull, dim
  48. dipl/o
  49. glauc/o
  50. mi/o
    smaller, less
  51. mydr/o
    widen, enlarge
  52. nyct/o
  53. phot/o
  54. presby/o
    old age
  55. scot/o
  56. xer/o
  57. -opia
  58. -opsia
  59. -tropia
    to turn
  60. Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye.
  61. Farsightedness
    hyperopia (hypermetropia)
  62. Nearsightedness
  63. Impairment of vision as a result of old age.
  64. Clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision.
  65. Small, hard, cystis mass (granuloma) on the eyelid.
  66. Retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blood vessels form int he retina).
    diabetic retinopathy
  67. Increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision.
  68. Localized, purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid.
    hordeolum (stye or sty)
  69. Progressive damage to the macula of the retina.
    macular degeneration
  70. Repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
  71. Inflammation of eyelid, causing redness, crusting, and swelling along lid margins.
  72. Granuloma formed around an inflamed sebaceous gland.
  73. Blockage, inflammation, and infection of a nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal sac, causing redness and swelling in the region between the nose and the lower lid.
  74. Outward sagging and eversion of the eyelid, leading to improper lacrimation and corneal drying and ulceration.
  75. Inversion of the eyelid, causing the lashes to rub against the eye; corneal abrasion may result.
  76. Infeciton of a sebaceous gland producing a small, superficial white nodule along lid margin.
    hordeolum (stye or sty)
  77. Drooping of upper lid margin as a result of neuromuscular problems or trauma.
  78. Raised yellowish plaque on eyelid caused by lipid disorder.
    xanthelasma (xanth/o = yellow, -elasma = plate)
  79. Two layers of the retina separate from each other.
    retinal detachment
  80. Abnormal deviation of the eye.
  81. Intravenous injection of fluorescein (a dye) followed by serial photographs of the retina through dilated pupils.
    fluorescein angiography
  82. Visual examination of the interior of the eye.
  83. Examination of anterior ocular structures under microscopic magnification.
    slit lamp microscopy
  84. Clarity of vision is assessed.
    visual acuity test
  85. Measurement of the area (peripheral and central) within which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead without movement of the head.
    visual field test
  86. Removal of the entire eyeball.
  87. Surgical repair of the cornea.
  88. Intense, precisely focused light beam (argon laser) creates an inflammatory reactino that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels.
    laser photocoagulation
  89. Use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism).
    LASIK. LASIK is an acronym for laser in situ keratomileusis (shaping the cornea).
  90. Ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens, which then is aspirated through the ultrasonic probe.
  91. Suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina.
    scleral buckle
  92. Channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum.
    auditory canal
  93. Auditory canal.
    auditory meatus
  94. Carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex).
    auditory nerve fibers. These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).
  95. Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube.
    auditory tube
  96. Flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna.
  97. Waxy substance secreted by the external ear; also called earwax.
  98. Snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing sensitive receptor cells.
  99. Fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear.
  100. Auditory tube.
    eustachian tube
  101. Second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear.
    incus. Incus means anvil.
  102. Maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals.
  103. First ossicle of the middle ear.
    malleus. Malleus means hammer.
  104. Sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear.
    organ of Corti
  105. Small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes.
  106. Membrane between the middle ear and the inner ear.
    oval window
  107. Fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear.
  108. Auricle; flap of the ear.
  109. Passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium.
    semicircular canals
  110. Third ossicle of the middle ear.
    stapes. Staples means stirrup.
  111. Membrane between the outer and middle ear; also called the eardrum.
    tympanic membrane
  112. Central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the semicircular canals and the cochlea.
    vestibule. The vestibule contains two structures, the saccule and the utricle, that help to maintain equilibrium.
  113. acous/o
  114. audi/o
    hearing; the sense of hearing
  115. audit/o
  116. aur/o
    ear (see also ot/o)
  117. cochle/o
  118. mastoid/o
    mastoid process
  119. myring/o
    eardrum, tympanic membrane (see also tympan/o)
  120. ossicul/o
  121. ot/o
  122. salping/o
    • eustachian tube
    • auditory tube
  123. staped/o
    stapes (third bone of the middle ear)
  124. tympan/o
    eardrum, tympanic membrane
  125. vestibul/o
  126. -acusis or -cusis
  127. -meter
    instrument to measure
  128. -otia
    ear condition
  129. Benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) in the brain.
    acoustic neuroma
  130. Collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear.
  131. Loss of the ability to hear.
    deafness. Nerve deafness (sensorineural hearing loss) results from impairment of the cochlea or auditory (acoustic) nerve. Conductive deafness results from impairment of the middle ear ossicles and membranes transmitting sound waves into the cochlea.
  132. Disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea (cochlear hydrops) and semicircular canals (vestibular hydrops).
    Ménière disease
  133. Inflammation of the middle ear.
    otitis media
  134. Hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear.
  135. Sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears.
  136. Sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects.
  137. Testing the sense of hearing.
  138. Electrical device that delivers acoustic stimuli of specific frequencies to determine patient's hearing loss for each frequency.
  139. Surgical insertion of a device that allows sensorineural hearing - impaired persons to understand speech.
    cochlear implant procedure
  140. Measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum.
    ear thermometry
  141. Visual examination of the ear canal with an otoscope.
  142. Test of ear conduction using a vibration source (tuning fork)..
    tuning fork test. To perform the Rinne test, the examiner places the base of the vibrating fork against the patient's mastoid bone (bone conduction) and in front of the auditory meatus (air conduction). In the Weber test, the tuning fork is placed on the center of the forehead.
  143. AD
    right ear (Latin, auris dextra)
  144. AOM
    acute otitis media
  145. AS
    left ear (Latin, auris sinistra)