Tech Concepts

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Tech Concepts
2010-04-07 21:35:10

Tech Concepts
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  1. A _______ is a group of computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables.
  2. A computer on the network that shares disk resources or provides services to other computers on the network.
  3. A computer on a network that is not a server.
  4. a small, simple, inexpensive device that joins multiple computers together at a low-level network protocol layer.
  5. ________ look nearly identical to hubs, but a ______ generally contains more "intelligence" than a hub. Unlike hubs, ________ are capable of inspecting the data packets as they are received and restricting the packets to just one area of the network. This reduces network traffic and speeds up network performance.
  6. _____ ____ _______, usually defined by a geographic location such as a classroom or building.
    LAN; Local Area Network
  7. ____ ____ _______, a wide-area network spans a large physical distance. A ___ like the Internet spans most of the World.
    WAN; Wide Area Network
  8. The now global computer network that makes worldwide email and web browsing possible.
  9. A network that is geographically defined, that uses internet protocols. They are used to reduce internet traffic, and to ensure security.
  10. In a ______-______ environment a centralized high speed server provides client PCs access to files, printing, communications, and other services. ______-______ networks are better suited to large organizations because of their speed and centralization.
  11. A ____-__-____ network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources. Individual resources like disk drives, CDROM drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC. ____-__-____ networks are perfect for home and small office networks.
  12. LAN
    Local Area Network
  13. WAN
    Wide Area Network
  14. CS
    Computer Science
  15. DTP
    Desktop Publishing
  16. DG
    Digital Graphics
  17. MM
  18. Vid
    Video Technology
  19. Web
    Web Mastering
  20. "original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device."
  21. When does it become Fair Use? What are the four factors?
    Only when they fall under Fair Use can educators use copyrighted material. They must meet all four factors.

    • What is the character of the use?
    • • Nonprofit • Educational • Personal • Criticism • Commentary • News reporting • Parody

    • What work is being used?
    • • Fact • Published

    • How much of the work will be used?
    • • Small Amounts

    • What effect will the use have on the market?
    • • Original is out of print orotherwise unavailable • No ready market for permission • Copyright owner isunidentifiable
  22. What can I print for my Classroom? Single Copies? Multiple Copies?
    • Single Copies for Classroom Use
    • A single copy may be made of any of the following by or for a teacher at his or her individual request, for his or her scholarly research or use in teaching, or preparation to teach a class:
    • • A chapter from a book; • An article from a periodical ornewspaper; • A short story, short essay, or short poem, whether or not from acollective work; • A chart, graph, diagram,drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper

    • Multiple Copies for Classroom Use
    • Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for classroom use or discussion; provided that:
    • • Use small amounts. • Used in close relation to the timeof the lesson. • Used for one course. • Each copy includes a notice ofcopyright
  23. How much can you use in Multimedia? (6 types of Portion Limitations)
    • • Motion Picture: up to 10 percent or three minutes, whichever is less.
    • • Text: up to 10 percent or 1,000 words, whichever is less.
    • • Poems: An entire poem of 250 words or less, but no more than three poems by one poet or five poems by different poets from any anthology.
    • • Musical Work: up to 10 percent but no more than 30 seconds.
    • • Photograph/Illustration: no more than five images by an artist or photographer may be used.
    • • Database/Data Table: up to 10 percent or 2,500 fields or cell entries, whichever is less.
  24. Can I show Videos in the Classroom? (4 Criteria)
    • The Copyright Act of 1976 Section 110 explains showing videos in the classroom in this way. In order to show a video in the classroom, you must meet these four criteria:
    • 1. Face-to-Face Instruction (This means it must in be done with the teacher and students in the same room. This does not mean distributive video throughout the entire school.)
    • 2. Teacher to student instruction (Tied to instruction and teacher to student or student to teacher. They must belong to a specific class.)
    • 3. Normal Classroom setting (Normal classroom setting is where a normal class would take place. Example: Classroom, library, gymnasium, or auditorium.)
    • 4. Non-profit organization (Any institution that is non-profit)Note: The videos must be legally obtained copies. They cannot be duplicates or modified versions.
  25. ______ graphics are made up of individual pixels.
  26. ______ graphics use mathematical relationships between points and the paths connecting them to describe an image.
  27. Graphics best suited for a Raster format are:
    photographs and images with subtle shading
  28. Graphics best suited for a Vector format are:
    page layout, type, line art, or illustrations
  29. CODEC
    compression/decompression algorithm used with finishing videos
  30. Name the five file types commonly used to compress videos.
    • .qt or .mov (Quicktime)
    • .wmv (Windows Media Video)
    • .flv (Flash Video; designed to play in any browser; requires no special player for Mac or PC)
    • .MPEG-4 (high compress & high quality; used for presentations, web, & handheld; appropriate for use in HD televisions)
  31. A _________ is a diagram that depicts the “flow” of a program. _________s contain symbols and each symbol represents a different type of operation.
  32. _________ are represented by rounded rectangles, indicate a starting or ending point.
  33. _____/______ __________ are represented by parallelograms and indicate an input or output operation.
    Input/Output Operations
  34. _________ are represented by rectangles, indicate a process such as a mathematical computation or variable assignment.
  35. The action performed by a __________ _________ must eventually cause the loop to terminate. Otherwise, an infinite loop is created.
    repetition structure
  36. A series of actions are performed in sequence.
    sequence structure
  37. One of several possible actions or a variable.
    case structure
  38. One of several possible actions is taken, depending on a condition.
    Decision Structure
  39. Structures are commonly combined to create more complex algorithms.
    Combining Structure
  40. The neutral colors are _____, _____, ____, & _____.
    black, white, gray, & bown
  41. The primary colors are ___, ___, & ______.
    red, blue, & yellow
  42. The secondary colors are ______, _____, & ______.
    orange, green, & violet
  43. _____ are colors that have white added to them.
  44. ______ are colors that have black added to them.
  45. Red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, yellow, & yellow-green are ____ colors.
  46. Green, blue-green, blue, blue-violet, violet, & red-violet are ____ colors.
  47. _____ _______ are use to combine colors in a pleasing manner. There should always be a ________ color and the others would be ______ colors.
    Color schemes; dominant; accent
  48. Two colors across from each other on the color wheel.
  49. 3-4 colors next to each other on the color wheel.
  50. Similar to complimentary, but you take the 2 colors on the sides of its compliment.
  51. Three colors equal distance from each other on the color wheel.
  52. One color with various tints or shades of that same color.
  53. One main neutral color with accents of a color.
    Accented Neutral
  54. What is RGB? What is it used for?
    • Red+Green+Blue=White; additive color model; used for onscreen displays such as web pages, presentations, and video; television & computers use the RGB color model.
    • (The RGB color model is an additive color model. Red, green, and blue when added together produce white. Black is produced by subtracting colors in this model. By mixing the three colors in this model, all of the colors necessary for on-screen graphics can be created.)
  55. What is CMYK? What is it used for?
    • Cyan+Magenta+Yellow=Black; subtractive color model; usd for printed work such as newsletters & brochures.
    • (The CYMK color model is a subtractive color model. This model is subtractive because adding or mixing multiple colors will produce black and subtracting colors will eventually result in white. Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, and percent Black are used to produce all of the colors necessary for printing.)
  56. A _____ _____ is an orderly system for creating a whole range of colors from a small set of primary colors. (two types)
    Color Model
  57. ________ color models use light to display color. Colors seen in these models are the result of transmitted light.
  58. ___________ models use printing inks to display color. Colors seen in these models are the result of reflected light.
  59. _______ is the method used to keep a publication together.
  60. The three types of distribution include ___ _________, _______, & __________ __ ______.
    hand delivered, mailing, & displaying in public
  61. Single page brochures do not require binding, and therefore are just folded. Flyers and brochures are examples of this type of publication. A brochure is easily mailed after a tri-fold binding. Some multiple page publications are also folded together for distribution.
  62. This type of binding is sewn or stapled down the center and then folded. If staples are used, a special stapler that has a longer reach would need to be used. This is an inexpensive way of binding pages and is fairly secure.
    Saddle Stitch
  63. This type of binding is stapled down the side of the publication. Although it is inexpensive, it is not the sturdiest method of binding. This type of binding is still easily distributed through the mail and by hand.
    Side Staple
  64. This type of binding requires holes to be punched in the publication. The cost is higher than stapling due to purchasing a binder. It is sturdier than the side staple, and is used mainly for hand distribution.
    Three-ring Binder
  65. This type of binding requires holes to be punched in the publication. You must have a comb binding machine in order to produce this yourself, otherwise, it may be taken to a publisher to have done. This method is somewhat durable, and may be hand delivered or mailed. A variety of colors could add some excitement to your publication!
    Plastic Comb
  66. This type of binding requires holes to be punched in the publication. This type of binding will most likely have to be taken to a publisher. It is very durable and mainly distributed by hand.
  67. The most durable method of binding is called perfect binding. This method involves sewing sections together (like the saddle stitch) and then gluing them with a flat binding. Textbooks normally use this type of binding.
  68. Text documents with pictures, tables, and drawings, commonly used on PCs (2)
    • .doc - Microsoft Word
    • .docx - Microsoft Word 2007
  69. Simple text can be shared among a variety of programs and PC/Mac compatible, can retain most formatting. (1)
    .rtf - Rich Text Format
  70. Simple text can be shared among a variety of programs and PC/Mac compatible. (1)
    .txt - Plain Text File
  71. Text documents with graphics and tables. Capabilities are similar to Microsoft Word. This is an open source application. (1)
    .odt - Open Office Writer
  72. Used to save spreadsheet data to import into a variety of other applications, such as data bases (1)
    .csv - Comma Separated Value
  73. This spreadsheet application allows data to be saved in a variety of formats. Commonly used functions include calculating data, creating charts and graphs. (2)
    • .xls - Microsoft Excel
    • .xlsx - Microsoft Excel 2007
  74. Spreadsheets with capabilities similar to Microsoft Excel. This is an open source application. (1)
    .ods - Open Office Calc
  75. This database application is commonly used by business, to store large amounts of data, to sort or find information, or to be used in conjunction with a web site to collect data (1)
    .mdb - Microsoft Access
  76. This database application is popular on both Mac and PC, can store large amounts of data to sort or find information, and can be used in conjunction with a web site to collect data (1)
    • .fp7 - FileMaker Pro
    • (The number at the end ofthe extension is determinedby the version of the software used.)
  77. A commonly used presentation application on Mac and PC used to create and edit slideshows. (2)
    • .ppt - Microsoft PowerPoint
    • .pptx - Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
  78. Code used to display web pages in a browser. (1)
    .html - HyperText Markup Language
  79. Keeps all the formatting of your document and creates a read only version of your document (1)
    .pdf - Adobe Portable Document Format
  80. These file extensions designate the most commonly used graphics. Typically, .gif is used for line drawings with few colors; .jpg is used for photographic quality images with millions of colors; .png is used for uncomplicated, vector-based images; .tiff is used for large files of high quality (4)
    • .gif - Graphic Interchange Format
    • .jpg - Joint Photographic Experts Group
    • .png - Portable Network Graphic
    • .tiff - Tagged Image Format File
  81. These file extensions designate those most commonly used for sound. Highly compressed but also high quality, .mp3 and .mp4 are most frequently used today. Files created using .wav or .aiff are typically large, uncompressed and of high quality. These are the native formats for Windows and Mac, respectively. (4)
    • .mp3 - Motion Pictures Expert Group-3
    • .mp4 - Motion Pictures Expert Group-4
    • .wav - Waveform Audio
    • .aiff - Audio Interchange File
  82. It is impossible to say that one video format is superior to another. With high quality raw footage and good compression algorithms, each file type has merit. For web applications, however, today’s most used video file type is .flv due to its cross-platform accessibility, small file size, and excellent image quality.Windows Media Video Audio Video Interleave File Quicktime Video Clip Real Media Motion Pictures Expert Group-4 Flash Video Shockwave Flash (7)
    • .wmv - Windows Media Video
    • .avi - Audio Video Interleave File
    • .mov - Quicktime Video Clip
    • .rm - Real Media
    • .mp4 - Motion Pictures Expert Group-4
    • .flv - Flash Video
    • .swf - Shockwave Flash