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*Reflexes underlie all automatic involuntary behaviors(trigered by enviromental stimulis), the conscious choises made are controled by the soul/mind non physical entitys.
- *discovered by Rene descartes,
- *automatic reactions to external enviromental stimuli that did not require thr use of the mind.
*rcognized many thing that people do are reflexes
a spritual force that is independent of physical universie and not influenced by it
- * The by-product of the operation of the mind which is controled by the soul
- *western theory: All human behavior is determined by conscious intent and free will.
- *Prior to Descartes/Dualism
- *Natrual phenomena are caused by animatin the spirit.
* Phlosphers such as Hippocrates and Plato concluded that thought
and behavior arosr from the brain.
- *Their study of anatomy demonstrated that nerves lead to the brain.
- * Ancient culters believed that the heart is the organ associated with thought and emotions.
- * Aristotle: Agreed with this belif and speculated that the brain is the radiator of the heart
Automatic reflexes elcited by enviromental stimuli. perdictable
Dualism relationship to Brain and behavior
- *Descartes was the first to suggest a link between mind and brain
- *Mind controled body movement
- *Body supplies brain with enviroment info
- *interaction btween body and brain occurs in pinal gland
- *Pinal gland is tilted to send fluid(animalsprits) to the right nerve
Conscious choice controled by the soul/mind.Unperdictable
Animals In dualism
*descartes believd that the invlountary mechnism of behavior is the only one avliable in animals.they do not have free will or mind/ soul no sence of consciousness
- Rejected Descartes assumption that invlountary behavior of the mind is unpredictable
- *indvidiuals volunntry behaviors are controled by their interactions with the enviroment
Principle of hedonism
Organized the interaction of voluntary human behavior with the enviroment no lasting influence on the mind
Principles of association
*Provided mechanism simple sensory experience were combined to generate ideas
Descartes believed that the contents of the mind were innate.humans are born with certain ideas like the concept of god
- * Jhon Locke And thomas Humes Believed that humans were born with a clear slate .
- *people aquired all their ideas through their experiences
- *Sensory experience is the orgin of knowlege
- *Knowlege grows by association
- occured repatedly at one time .once association occurs when one events happends it will evoke the memory of the other
- the more offten two events occur together the stronger the association
- the stronger the feelings that accompany the association the stonger the association
the more features are shared by 2 events the stonger the associatin
I.M secenov Application
- * Advansces in nevous system and led many to believ behavior is a reflex to a faint stimuli
- *All thoughts and behaviors are elicited by external stimuli
- *Voluantary behaviors are reflexive
- Distinction btween man and animals
- *man is descended from lower form, notwithstanding that connecting links have not hitherto neen discovered.
- -Natrual selection:survival of fittest
- -variation: Mutations with in genes
- -Transsmission: passing good genes to ensure fitness of offspring
- william James
- -Explnation of behavior that further explains survival benits for a specific species
*Every area of the brain is capable of controling all mental activity and behavior. there is no spcialized brain structure for a particular behavior
- * Studied rats in a maze
- *Law mass Action: learning memory requires participation of the entire crebal cortex, As more of the cortex is damaged the greater the learning memory defects
- *Laww of equipotentionality:all parts of cortex contribute equaly to learning and memory.
proposes the diffrent mental facualties and behaviors are regulated by distenict spcific areas of the brain
All nerves process info via elictrical impulses diffrent nerves produce diffrent sensations
*receives and transmits information to other cells via electrochemical processes
Contains nucleus and other spcialiced organelles.
- cintains nucleolus manufactured ribosomes that leave the nucleolus
Branches that extend from the cell body and receive information
Initial segment of which nural intregation occurs and where the action potential is initiated
Long thin fibers that transmit(propgate) action potential neurons have one
covering of the axon that insulates it from the extracellular fluid
Nodes of ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath that permit salutatory conduction