Brain & Behavior

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Brain & Behavior
2012-02-13 00:46:05

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  1. Dualism
    *Reflexes underlie all automatic involuntary behaviors(trigered by enviromental stimulis), the conscious choises made are controled by the soul/mind non physical entitys.
  2. Reflexes
    • *discovered by Rene descartes,
    • *automatic reactions to external enviromental stimuli that did not require thr use of the mind.
  3. Rene Descartes
    *rcognized many thing that people do are reflexes
  4. Soul
    a spritual force that is independent of physical universie and not influenced by it
  5. Free Will
    • * The by-product of the operation of the mind which is controled by the soul
    • *western theory: All human behavior is determined by conscious intent and free will.
  6. Animism
    • *Prior to Descartes/Dualism
    • *Natrual phenomena are caused by animatin the spirit.
  7. Encephalocentric
    * Phlosphers such as Hippocrates and Plato concluded that thought and behavior arosr from the brain.

    • How?
    • *Their study of anatomy demonstrated that nerves lead to the brain.
  8. Cardiocentric veiw
    • * Ancient culters believed that the heart is the organ associated with thought and emotions.
    • * Aristotle: Agreed with this belif and speculated that the brain is the radiator of the heart
  9. Involuntary Behaviors
    Automatic reflexes elcited by enviromental stimuli. perdictable
  10. Dualism relationship to Brain and behavior
    • *Descartes was the first to suggest a link between mind and brain
    • *Mind controled body movement
    • *Body supplies brain with enviroment info
    • *interaction btween body and brain occurs in pinal gland
    • *Pinal gland is tilted to send fluid(animalsprits) to the right nerve
  11. Voluntary Behaviors
    Conscious choice controled by the soul/mind.Unperdictable
  12. Animals In dualism
    *descartes believd that the invlountary mechnism of behavior is the only one avliable in animals.they do not have free will or mind/ soul no sence of consciousness
  13. Thomas Hobbs
    • Rejected Descartes assumption that invlountary behavior of the mind is unpredictable
    • *indvidiuals volunntry behaviors are controled by their interactions with the enviroment
  14. Principle of hedonism
    Organized the interaction of voluntary human behavior with the enviroment no lasting influence on the mind
  15. Principles of association
    *Provided mechanism simple sensory experience were combined to generate ideas
  16. Nativism
    Descartes believed that the contents of the mind were innate.humans are born with certain ideas like the concept of god
  17. Tabula Rasa
    • * Jhon Locke And thomas Humes Believed that humans were born with a clear slate .
    • *people aquired all their ideas through their experiences
    • *Sensory experience is the orgin of knowlege
    • *Knowlege grows by association
  18. temproal contiguity:
    • principle
    • occured repatedly at one time .once association occurs when one events happends it will evoke the memory of the other
  19. frequency
    • principle
    • the more offten two events occur together the stronger the association
  20. intensity
    • principle
    • the stronger the feelings that accompany the association the stonger the association
  21. similarity
    the more features are shared by 2 events the stonger the associatin
  22. I.M secenov Application
    • * Advansces in nevous system and led many to believ behavior is a reflex to a faint stimuli
    • *All thoughts and behaviors are elicited by external stimuli
    • *Voluantary behaviors are reflexive
  23. Darwinian theory
    • Distinction btween man and animals
    • *man is descended from lower form, notwithstanding that connecting links have not hitherto neen discovered.
    • -Natrual selection:survival of fittest
    • -variation: Mutations with in genes
    • -Transsmission: passing good genes to ensure fitness of offspring
  24. Functionalism
    • william James
    • -Explnation of behavior that further explains survival benits for a specific species
  25. Holism
    *Every area of the brain is capable of controling all mental activity and behavior. there is no spcialized brain structure for a particular behavior
  26. Karl Lashay
    • * Studied rats in a maze
    • *Law mass Action: learning memory requires participation of the entire crebal cortex, As more of the cortex is damaged the greater the learning memory defects
    • *Laww of equipotentionality:all parts of cortex contribute equaly to learning and memory.
    • (holism)
  27. Localization:
    proposes the diffrent mental facualties and behaviors are regulated by distenict spcific areas of the brain
  28. Johannes Muller
    All nerves process info via elictrical impulses diffrent nerves produce diffrent sensations
  29. Neurons
    *receives and transmits information to other cells via electrochemical processes
  30. Soma(cell Body)
    Contains nucleus and other spcialiced organelles.
  31. Nucleus
    • cintains nucleolus manufactured ribosomes that leave the nucleolus
    • *DnA
  32. dendrites
    Branches that extend from the cell body and receive information
  33. Axon hillock
    Initial segment of which nural intregation occurs and where the action potential is initiated
  34. Axon
    Long thin fibers that transmit(propgate) action potential neurons have one
  35. Myelin sheath-
    covering of the axon that insulates it from the extracellular fluid
  36. Nodes of ranvier
    gaps in the myelin sheath that permit salutatory conduction